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Table 2 Selected clinical studies of MRD in multiple myeloma

From: Minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma: current status

Study MRD technique
(sensitivity)
MRD+ rate Survival outcomes
(MRD-negative vs MRD-positive)
Paiva et al. 20087 [20]
PMID:18669875
4-color MFC
(10− 4)
58%
(n = 295)
median PFS: 71 mo vs 37 mo
(HR = 0.28, 95%CI 0.17–0.43, P < 0.001)
median OS: NR vs 89 mo
(HR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.38–0.64, P = 0.002)
Rawstron et al. 2013 [50]
PMID:23733781
6-color MFC
(10− 4)
38%
(n = 397)
median PFS: 28.6 mo vs 15.5 mo
(HR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.43–0.71, P < 0.001)
median OS: 80.6 mo vs 59.0 mo
(HR = 0.64, 95%CI 0.45–0.91, P = 0.018)
Chakraborty et al.2017 [55]
PMID:28115277
6- color or 7-color MFC
(2 × 10− 5–10− 4)
44%
(n = 185)
median PFS: 26 mo vs 17 mo
(HR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.31–0.66, P < 0.001)
median OS: NR vs 50 mo
(HR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.32–0.92, P = 0.023)
Deng et al.2018 [59]
PMID:29779345
MFC
(10− 4)
55%
(n = 106)
median PFS: NR vs 17 mo
(HR = 0.23, 95%CI 0.09–0.58, P < 0.001)
Gu et al.2018 [60]
PMID:30142420
MFC
(5 × 10− 5 -10− 5)
64%
(n = 104)
median TTP:NR vs 26.4 ± 11.5 mo
(HR = 0.18, 95%CI 0.08–0.43, P < 0.001)
median OS:NR vs 40.7 ± 13.7 mo
(HR = 0.08, 95%CI 0.02–0.27, P < 0.001)
Perrot et al.2018 [70]
PMID:30249784
NGS
(10−6)
62%
(n = 239)
median PFS: NR vs 20 mo
(HR = 0.18, 95%CI 0.12–0.28, P < 0.001)
3-year OS: 96% vs 86%
(HR = 0.26, 95%CI 0.10–0.68, p = 0.008)
Li et al.2019 [61]
PMID:30721336
MFC
(10− 4)
75%
(n = 123)
median PFS: NR vs 26 mo
(HR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.12–0.69, P < 0.001)
4-year OS:91.7% vs 66.3%
(HR = 0.13, 95%CI 0.02–0.96, P = 0.008)
Tschcautsher et al.2019 [62]
PMID:30945330
7-color MFC
(2 × 10−5)
30%
(n = 460)
median TTNT: 37.6 mo vs 23 mo
(HR = 0.51, 95%CI 0.40–0.66, P < 0.001)
Alonso et al.2020 [63]
PMID:32433744
4-color MFC or NGS (> 10− 4) 48%
(n = 139)
median PFS: 83 mo vs 48 mo
(HR = 0.49, 95%CI 0.27–0.86, P = 0.011)
Medina et al.2020 [64]
PMID: 33127891
NGF
(2 × 10− 6)
45%
(n = 106)
3-year PFS: 91.4% vs 50%
(HR = 0.20, 95%CI 0.09–0.44, P < 0.001)
3-year OS: 96.6% vs 74.9%
(HR = 0.18, 95%CI 0.05–0.62, P = 0.007)
Paiva et al.2020 [65]
PMID: 31770060
NGF
(2 × 10−6)
43%
(n = 357)
36-month PFS: 87% vs 50%
(HR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.12–0.36, P < 0.001)
36-month OS: 96% vs 88%
(HR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.67, P = 0.005)
  1. Abbreviations: MRD measurable residual disease, MFC multiparameter flow cytometry, NGF next-generation flow, NGS next-generation sequencing, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, PFS progression-free survival, OS overall survival, TTNT time to next treatment, TTP time to progression, mo months, NR not reached