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Table 4 Area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) for diagnosis of concussion per biomarker

From: Blood biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury: a selective review of unresolved issues

Marker Study Year Study Size Sampling AUROC
  Lead Author   (N) Time (hrs)†  
GFAP Gill [71] 2018 277 0-48 0.93
  Papa [17] 2019 452 0-4 0.76
  Giza [83] 2021 167 0-6 0.75
  Lewis [103] 2017 188 0-6 0.70
  McCrea [31] 2020 206 0-6 0.68
  Posti [81] 2017 44 0-24 0.63
  Asken [79] 2018 29 0-4 0.63
  McDonald [68] 2021 28 2 days 0.60
  Meier [80] 2017 32 0-6 0.53
NF-L McDonald [68] 2021 20‡ 6 days 0.85
  Gill [71] 2018 277 0-48 0.77
  Giza [83] 2021 167 0-6 0.73
  McCrea [31] 2020 206 0-6 0.56
  Wallace [104] 2018 12 6 days NS
S100B Asken [79] 2018 29 0-4 0.75
  Meier [80] 2017 32 0-6 0.72
  Lewis [103] 2017 188 0-6 0.69
  Shahim [85] 2014 35 0-1 0.67
  Rogatzi [86] 2021 8 0-1 0.48
tau-T Shahim [85] 2014 35 0-1 0.86
  Asken [79] 2018 27 0-4 0.74
  McDonald [68] 2021 20‡ 13 days 0.72
  Gill [71] 2018 277 0-48 0.68
  McCrea [31] 2020 206 0-6 0.55
  Giza [83] 2021 167 0-6 0.50
  Wallace [104] 2018 11 6 days NS
  Wallace [104] 2019 11 14 days NS
UCH-L1 Meier [80] 2017 32 0-6 0.74
  Giza [83] 2021 167 0-6 0.73
  McCrea [31] 2020 206 0-6 0.66
  Lewis [103] 2017 188 0-6 0.65
  Papa [17] 2019 452 0-4 0.65
  Asken [79] 2018 26 0-4 0.62
  McDonald [68] 2021 20‡ 2 days 0.61
  Posti [81] 2017 44 0-24 0.52
  1. The bolded AUROC value are ≥0.80.
  2. Times are in hours except where noted.
  3. Concussed male football players only, NS for 8 females