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Table 2 Kinetic parameters of commonly investigated biomarkers for mTBI

From: Blood biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury: a selective review of unresolved issues

Biomarker Normal Plasma Normal CSF Half-life Tmax ka ke References
  level (pg/ml) level (pg/ml) hrs hrs    
GFAP 60-70 2100 36 24 0.080 0.019 [9, 11, 12, 17, 65]
NF-L 6-20 400-1100 500 ?? 100-300 ?? 0.009 0.001 [8, 12, 67, 68]
S100B 50-60 1800 1.5† 2 0.500 0.462 [9, 11, 27, 28, 65, 69, 70]
tau 1-5 270 10 8 0.070 0.069 [8, 11, 71, 72]
UCH-L1 8-10 4500 8 8 0.090 0.086 [9, 11, 17, 22, 65, 73]
  1. Values for half-life and Tmax are mid-range of reported estimates
  2. S100B undergoes rapid redistribution to other compartments before renal elimination
  3. ??Estimates are uncertain
  4. Estimates for the absorption constant (ka) and elimination constant (ke) compartment pharmacokinetic model with first order kinetics from [74].