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Table 5 Summary of visual assessment methods

From: Biomarkers of a five-domain translational substrate for schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychosis

Assay/Assessment Method Laboratory/Reference
Visual   
Near vision acuity test Sussex Vision test of near vision. Near vision test card SNT-3000-L, 2009–2011. Sussex Vision International Ltd. (35)http://sussexvision.co.uk/index.php/near-tests/reading-tests.html.
Visual (symbol) span Increasing number of symbols are presented in a standardised order from left to right. Test score reported as the absolute number of visual symbols recalled in the correct order. Based on Visual Symbol subset test of WMS-IV (Weschler 2009)
Distance vision (Binocular distance vision acuity) Right distance vision, then left distance vision, with 20 seconds inter-test interval. The Snellen-Chart (Snellen 1860)
Threshold visual speed of processing performance as a percentage of age Person tested sees two brief flashes of light randomly presented from left-to-right or right-to-left on multiple occasions, and must decide which light flash appeared first. The inter-stimulus time interval (ISI) between the flashes is shortened by computer algorithm, if the answer is correct, otherwise it is lengthened. A performance-age rating, is provided, configured against norms-for-age. Performance-age is subtracted from the individual’s actual age and the result divided by the age of the test subject is multiplied by 100. Brain Boy Universal Professional instrument (MediTECH 2010)
(Expresses visual processing speed in terms of the visual processing system’s relative age)
Shortest interval of time a person can notice between the order of presentation of two optical stimuli. Speed of visual order processing increases with age. For adults between the range of 18 and 60 years, the normal range for visual speed of processing is 24 to 72 milliseconds). For adults between the range of 18 and 60 years, the normal range for visual speed of processing is 24 to 72 milliseconds.