From: Plasma contact factors as novel biomarkers for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease
Demographic data/molecules in CSF or plasma | Total numbers of subjects | Normal | Prodromal AD | AD dementia | p value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Number of subjects | 101 | 50 | 23 | 28 | |
Age | 101 | 72.0 (6.1) | 71.1 (8.6) | 69.4 (6.0) | 0.262 |
Years of education | 101 | 9.5 (5.0) | 8.0 (4.7) | 6.70 (3.8) ^{a} | 0.033 |
Gender, female, n (%) | 101 | 26.0 (52.0) | 12 (52.2) | 17.0 (60.7) | 0.736 |
K-MMSE score | 101 | 26.8 (2.3) | 25.3 (3.9) | 17.9 (5.4) ^{a, b} | < 0.001 |
CDR | 101 | 0.3 (0.2) | 0.5 (0.0) ^{a} | 0.9 (0.4) ^{a, b} | < 0.001 |
CDR sum of boxes | 101 | 0.5 (0.6) | 1.3 (0.6) | 5.1 (2.6) ^{a, b} | < 0.001 |
GDS | 101 | 1.6 (0.5) | 3.0 (0.2) ^{a} | 4.1 (0.9) ^{a, b} | < 0.001 |
B-ADL | 101 | 20.0 (0.0) | 20.0 (0.2) | 19.0 (1.8) ^{a, b} | < 0.001 |
I-ADL | 101 | 0.04 (0.08) | 0.22 (0.14) ^{a} | 0.63 (0.20) ^{a, b} | < 0.001 |
CSF biomarkers | |||||
Aβ_{1–42}, pg/ml | 101 | 1,059 (177) | 550 (223) ^{a} | 484 (192) ^{a} | < 0.001 |
t-Tau, pg/ml | 101 | 230 (77) | 389 (236) ^{a} | 536 (209) ^{a, b} | < 0.001 |
p-Tau_{181}, pg/ml | 101 | 44 (14) | 66 (33) ^{a} | 78 (28) ^{a} | < 0.001 |
BK, pg/ml | 72 | 83 (49) | 55 (45) | 39 (33) ^{a} | 0.002 |
Plasma factors | |||||
FXIIa, U/ml | 101 | 23.90 (3.70) | 28.0 (3.4) ^{a} | 30.6 (3.7) ^{a} | < 0.001 |
FXIa, U/ml | 101 | 1.11 (0.21) | 1.18 (0.21) | 1.30 (0.30) ^{a} | 0.005 |
FXa, U/ml | 101 | 0.77 (0.11) | 0.81 (0.12) | 0.97 (0.29) ^{a, b} | < 0.001 |
Kallikrein, U/ml | 101 | 1.20 (0.25) | 1.35 (0.34) | 1.54 (0.39) ^{a} | < 0.001 |
BK, pg/ml | 90 | 13,365 (9,305) | 13,497 (7,945) | 17,679 (21,186) | 0.406 |