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Table 1 Demographic and biochemical characteristics of normal subjects, prodromal AD, and AD dementia

From: Plasma contact factors as novel biomarkers for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease

Demographic data/molecules in CSF or plasma Total numbers of subjects Normal Prodromal AD AD dementia p value
Number of subjects 101 50 23 28  
Age 101 72.0 (6.1) 71.1 (8.6) 69.4 (6.0) 0.262
Years of education 101 9.5 (5.0) 8.0 (4.7) 6.70 (3.8) a 0.033
Gender, female, n (%) 101 26.0 (52.0) 12 (52.2) 17.0 (60.7) 0.736
K-MMSE score 101 26.8 (2.3) 25.3 (3.9) 17.9 (5.4) a, b < 0.001
CDR 101 0.3 (0.2) 0.5 (0.0) a 0.9 (0.4) a, b < 0.001
CDR sum of boxes 101 0.5 (0.6) 1.3 (0.6) 5.1 (2.6) a, b < 0.001
GDS 101 1.6 (0.5) 3.0 (0.2) a 4.1 (0.9) a, b < 0.001
B-ADL 101 20.0 (0.0) 20.0 (0.2) 19.0 (1.8) a, b < 0.001
I-ADL 101 0.04 (0.08) 0.22 (0.14) a 0.63 (0.20) a, b < 0.001
CSF biomarkers
 Aβ1–42, pg/ml 101 1,059 (177) 550 (223) a 484 (192) a < 0.001
 t-Tau, pg/ml 101 230 (77) 389 (236) a 536 (209) a, b < 0.001
 p-Tau181, pg/ml 101 44 (14) 66 (33) a 78 (28) a < 0.001
 BK, pg/ml 72 83 (49) 55 (45) 39 (33) a 0.002
Plasma factors
 FXIIa, U/ml 101 23.90 (3.70) 28.0 (3.4) a 30.6 (3.7) a < 0.001
 FXIa, U/ml 101 1.11 (0.21) 1.18 (0.21) 1.30 (0.30) a 0.005
 FXa, U/ml 101 0.77 (0.11) 0.81 (0.12) 0.97 (0.29) a, b < 0.001
 Kallikrein, U/ml 101 1.20 (0.25) 1.35 (0.34) 1.54 (0.39) a < 0.001
 BK, pg/ml 90 13,365 (9,305) 13,497 (7,945) 17,679 (21,186) 0.406
  1. Data are presented as mean (± standard deviation) or number (%). Abbreviations: K-MMSE Korean Mini-Mental State Examination, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, GDS Global Deterioration Scale, B-ADL Barthel Activities of Daily Living, I-ADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, amyloid beta-protein, t-Tau total Tau protein, p-Tau phosphorylated Tau protein, AD Alzheimer’s disease, BK bradykinin. astatistically significant difference between the indicated group and the normal group; bstatically significant difference between prodromal AD and AD dementia groups