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Table 1 Important immune cells involved in CAA regulation

From: Cancer-associated adipocytes as immunomodulators in cancer

Immune cells Mechanism Alternations References
Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) Glycolysis↑
FFA uptake↑
A3R activation
↑differentiation
↑ARG1
[54, 56, 59]
Natural killer cells MYC ↓
mTORC1↓→glycolysis↓, OXPHOS↓
Lipid accumulation↑
↓IFN-γ
↓Granzymes
↓Perforin
↑Apoptosis
[72, 73, 75, 77, 79, 83, 86]
Natural killer T cells CD1d↓ ↓Effector function [92, 93]
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) HIF1α stabilization → glycolysis
PPAR-γ, PGC-1β↑→FFA uptake, oxidation↑
GPR132 activation
CD39 CD73↑→A2BR activation
↑M2-like polarization
↑ARG1
↑VEGF
[109, 111, 115, 117]
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) PUFAs→ immune suppression↑
CSF→ lipid metabolism↑
↓T cell activation [121, 122]
Dendritic cells mTORC1/HIF1/NOS2↓→glycolysis↓
Lipid accumulation↑
PKA/Epac↑
GPR8 activation
↓antigen-presentation function
↑IL-10
↓IL-12
[135, 137, 140, 142]
Regulatory T cells CD36↑→ FFA uptake, oxidation↑
PPAR-γ↑
MCT1↑ → OXPHOS↑
CD39↑→A2AR activation
↑Differentiation
↑Proliferation
[165, 168, 172]
Effector T cells Glycolysis↓
OXPHOS↓
CPT1α↑ → FAO↑
↓Effector function
↓Proliferation
↓Cytokine production
↑PD1
[173, 184, 185, 190, 193]