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Table 1 circular RNAs in immune responses and diseases

From: The emerging landscape of circular RNAs in immunity: breakthroughs and challenges

circRNA Immune cell types Potential Functions Diseases or Process Reference
circ_002178 CD8+ T cell acting as a ceRNA to promote PDL1/PD1 expression LUAD [47]
circ_100783 CD8+ T cell playing a role in phosphoprotein-associated functions duringCD28-related CD8+ T cell ageing [48]
circ-TNFRSF11A CD4+ T cell participating in the SCID mediated alteration of different signaling pathways. SCID [49]
circ_0005519 CD4+ T cell inducing IL-13 and IL-6 expression by regulating let-7a-5p in CD4+ T cells to affect asthma Asthma [50]
circ_0012919 CD4+ T cell increased DNMT1 expression, reduced CD70 and CDlla expression, rescued the DNA hypomethylation of CD1 la and CD70 in CD4+T cells of SLE patients, as well as regulated the expression of RANTES and KLF13 by onding to miR-125a-3p SLE [51]
circ-LAMP1 T cell promoting T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma progression via acting as a ceRNA for miR-615-5p to regulate DDR2 expression. Lymphoblastic lymphoma [52]
T cell structure and degradation of circRNAs regulating PKR Activation in innate immunity [53]
circ-CDR1as/ciRS-7 CD8+ T cell
NK cell
regulating the TGF-β signaling pathway and ECM-receptor interaction to serve as a mediator in alteration of the tumor microenvironment Cancer [54]
circ-UBAP2 Macrophage
Exhausted T cells
mediated ceRNA network modulating PAAD by regulating the infiltration and function of immune cells PAAD [55]
circ-PAX5 T cells
B cells
up-regulation in pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and disclosed circRNAs with variable expression across cytogenetic subtypes Pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia [56]
circ-ASAP1 Macrophage circASAP1 promotes HCC cell proliferation and invasion by regulating miR-326/miR-532-5p-MAPK1 signaling and, mediates tumor-associated-macrophage infiltration by regulating the miR-326/miR-532-5p-CSF-1 pathway HCC [57]
circ_0043497 Macrophage circRNAs alterations are involved in human monocyte derived macrophages response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection [58]
circ-ANRIL Macrophage circANRIL binds to pescadillo homologue 1 (PES1), thereby impairing exonuclease-mediated pre-rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis in vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Ribosomal RNA maturation and atherosclerosis [59]
circ-HECTD1 Macrophage SiO2-activated macrophages promoted fibroblast proliferation and migration via the circHECTD1/HECTD1 pathway Silicosis [60]
circ-CDC42BPA B cell disrupting transduction of B cell signaling to induce occurrence of SCID SCID [61]
circ-MALAT1 DC GDF15 induces tolerogenic DCs (Tol-DCs) through inhibition of circ-MALAT1 and the NFκB signaling pathway and up-regulation of IDO [62]
circ-ARSP91 NK cell increasing the susceptibility of HCC cells to NK cell cytotoxicity by upregulating UL16 binding protein 1 (ULBP1) expression in HCC cells at the mRNA and protein levels Hepatocellular Carcinoma [63]
circ_0000175 Neutrophil significantly differentially expressed in rheumatoid arthritis, and are related to disease activity and severity Rheumatoid Arthritis [64]
Neutrophil Differentially expressed circRNAs were mainly involved in immune responses, angiogenesis and metabolism in asymptomatic Moyamoya disease Moyamoya Disease [65]
circ-CDR1as B cell serving as the miR-7 “sponge” to increase expression of PTEN and restrain SLE [66]
  Other immune-related diseases
circ_102584 as novel non-invasive biomarkers for SLE SLE [67]
circ_0057980 circ-0057980
serving as the miR-181d “sponge” to suppress the development of RA.
circ-0001045 serving as the miR-30a “sponge” to promote the biogenesis of RA
RA [68]
circ_0088088 serving as the miR-16 “sponge” to suppress the development of RA RA [69]
circ-Atp9b serving as the miR-138 “sponge” to promote extracellular matrix degradation OA [70]
circ_0005105 promoting extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation by regulating the expression of miR-26a target NAMPT OA [71]
circ_0045714 regulating extracellular matrix synthesis as well as proliferation and apoptosis of chondrocytes by promoting the expression of miR-193b target gene IGF1R OA [72]
circ-IBTK inhibiting DNA demethylation and activation of AKT signaling pathway by binding to miR-29b SLE [73]
circ_0045272 combining with miR-6127 to target PAX8 and DTX4 to participate in the secretion of interleukin 2 and the negative regulation of apoptosis SLE [74]
circRNAs involved in atrial fibrillation due to rheumatic heart disease through ceRNA mechanism Rheumatic [75]
  Infection related
circ_0000479 indirectly regulating RIG-I expression by sponging miR-149-5p, hampering viral replication Hantaan Virus Infection [76]
circ-FNDC3B promoting MERS-CoV load and their target mRNA expression which modulates various biological pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ubiquitination pathways. MERS-CoV
circ_0004812 circ_0004812/miR-1287-5p/FSTL1 axis regulated HBV-induced immune suppression Chronic Hepatitis B Infection [78]
circ_002423 the biological functions of genes hosting the circRNAs were enriched in the progression of metabolism and binding Meningoencephalitis of Teleosts [79]
circRNAs participating in the development of bacterial meningitis through circRNA / miRNA / mRNA regulation mechanism Bacterial Meningitis [80]
circRNAs participating in the resistance to the pathogenesis of diarrhea through circRNA / miRNA / mRNA regulation mechanism Diarrhea (Escherichia coli F17) [81]
circ_001937 correlated with tuberculosis severity Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection [82]
peripheral blood mononuclear cell circRNAs are potentially reliable marker molecules in tuberculosis diagnosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection [83]
circ_0005836 significantly down-regulated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of active pulmonary tuberculosis compared with health controls, and might serve as a novel potential biomarker for tuberculosis infection Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection [84]
  1. Abbreviations:SCID Severe combined immunodeficiency, SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus, RA Rheumatoid arthritis, OA Osteoarthritis, LUAD Lung adenocarcinoma, PAAD Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, HCC Hepatocellular Carcinoma