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Table 2 MSC-EVs application in clinical trial

From: Novel insights into MSC-EVs therapy for immune diseases

Diseases Clinical trial design Potential mechanism Refs
Graft-versus-host disease individual treatment decrease IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ; increase IL-10 and TGF-β [60]
Chronic kidney disease phase II/III, single centre, randomized, placebo-controlled, increase TGF-β and IL-10, decreaseTNF-α [67]