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Table 1 Clinical trials of agents that target TAMs for cancer treatment

From: Tumor-associated macrophages, potential targets for cancer treatment

Action Agent name Target Status Phase Tumor type Effect Trial number
Limiting monocyte recruitment Carlumab CCL2 Completed II Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer Well-tolerated, no antitumor activity as a single agent NCT00992186
Completed Ib Solid tumors Well-tolerated,
no long-term suppression of serum CCL2 or significant tumor responses
NCT01204996
Completed I Solid tumors Transient CCL2 suppression, preliminary antitumor activity NCT00537368
PF-04136309 CCR2 Completed Ib Locally advanced pancreatic cancer Safe and tolerable, objective tumor response NCT01413022
MLN1202 CCR2 Completed II Bone metastases uNTX response rate: 14/43 NCT01015560
Targeting TAM activation MCS110 CSF1 Recruiting II Advanced triple negative breast cancer NA NCT02435680
Recruiting Ib/II Advanced malignancies NA NCT01643850
Terminated I/II Prostate cancer, bone metastases NA NCT00757757
IMC-CS4 CSF1R Recruiting I Advanced solid tumors NA NCT01346358
Recruiting I Advanced, refractory breast or prostate cancer NA NCT02265536
AMG 820 CSF1R Completed I Advanced solid tumors NA NCT01444404
Recruiting I/II Pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer NA NCT02713529
PLX7486 CSF1R Recruiting I Advanced solid tumors NA NCT01804530
PLX3397 CSF1R Completed II Recurrent glioblastoma Well tolerated,
no efficacy
NCT01349036
Completed II Relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma Safe,
response rate: 1/20
NCT01217229
Completed II Advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer NA NCT01499043
Recruiting I/II Sarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors NA NCT02584647
Recruiting II Advanced melanoma, other solid tumors NA NCT02452424
Recruiting Ib/II Metastatic breast cancer NA NCT01596751
Recruiting I/II Refractory leukemias, solid tumors NA NCT02390752
Recruiting I Advanced solid tumors NA NCT01525602
Alemtuzumab CD52 Terminated I Ovarian, fallopian, or primary peritoneal cancers NA NCT00637390
Completed II Kidney cancer NA NCT00073879
Reprogramming TAMs to antitumor macrophages ChiLob 7/4 CD40 Completed I Advanced malignancies refractory to conventional anti-cancer treatment Safe, activate B and NK cells NCT01561911
(GM.CD40L) vaccine with CCL21 CD40 Active, not recruiting I/II Lung cancer NA NCT01433172
Tremelimumab and CP-870, 893 CD40 Active, not recruiting I Metastatic melanoma NA NCT01103635
WP1066 STAT3 Not yet recruiting I Recurrent malignant glioma and brain metastases NA NCT01904123
AZD9150
(ISIS-STAT3Rx)
STAT3 Completed I/Ib Advanced/metastatic hepatocellular
carcinoma
NA NCT01839604
β-glucan MAPK Completed II Stage IV KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer Compelling, albeit modest, clinical activity NCT00912327
Recruiting I Neuroblastoma NA NCT00911560
Active, not recruiting I Metastatic neuroblastoma NA NCT00492167
Hu5F9-G4 CD47 Recruiting I Solid tumor NA NCT02216409
CC-90002 and Rituximab CD47 Recruiting I Hematologic neoplasms NA NCT02367196