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Table 1 Brief summary of the potential molecular targets for optimized anti-angiogenesis therapy

From: Glioblastoma vasculogenic mimicry: signaling pathways progression and potential anti-angiogenesis targets

Project Potential molecular targets Related process Tumor types/cell lines method PMID
Signaling pathway
TGFβ Signaling pathway TGFβ EMT-embryonic phenotype regain; U251 Transfection and RNAi 22104964
tumor microenvironment remodulation SHG44 24370825
VEGFR-2/Flk-1 pathway VEGFR-2 Self-renewal, tumorigenicity and tubular formation U87 derived GSCs, Transfection and RNAi; 23536763
GBM samples Immunohistochemistry,
  Xenograft models
U87 RNAi; 22654102
GSDC xenotransplantation
VE-cadherin/CDH5 and EphA2 pathways VE-cadherin hypoxia induced microenvironment remodulation; Glioma samples;GSCs RT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry; 23645533
RNAi and xenograft models
EphA2 and MiR-26b Cell proliferation, invasion and tubular formation Glioma samples; RT-PCR; 21264258
U251 and C6 Transfection and RNAi
RTK/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway RTK/PI3K/mTOR Cell proliferation, apoptosis, microenvironment remodulation. U251 and T98G Pharmacologic inhibitor, RNAi 24418474
MMP-laminin5γ2 chain pathway MMPs a shared downstream signaling pathway U251 Transfection and RNAi 22104964
others COX-2 Promote cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis and prohibit apoptosis Glioma specimen Immunohistochemistry, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests 21533525
MiR-9 Cell proliferation and apoptosis U87MG Transfection and RNAi 24043603