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Table 2 Markers and functions of MC subsets in human and mouse

From: Monocyte and macrophage differentiation: circulation inflammatory monocyte as biomarker for inflammatory diseases

Species Subsets Surface markers % in MNC Chemokine receptors Functions
Human Classical CD14++CD16- 80-95 CCR2highCX3CR1low Phagocytosis
  Intermediate CD14++CD16+ 2-11 CCR2midCX3CR1highCCR5+ Pro-inflammatory
  Non-classical CD14+CD16++ 2-8 CCR2lowCX3CR1high Patrolling
Mouse Ly6Chigh (Ly6C+) CD11b+CD115+Ly6Chigh 40-45 CCR2highCX3CR1low Phagocytosis & Pro-inflammatory
  Ly6Cmiddle (Ly6C+) CD11b+CD115+Ly6Cmiddle 5-32 CCR2highCX3CR1low Pro-inflammatory
  Ly6Clow (Ly6C-) CD11b+CD115 +Ly6Clow 26-50 CCR2lowCX3CR1high Patrolling; tissue repair
  1. Human MCs are divided into three subsets based on the cell surface expression of CD14 and CD16. CD14++CD16- MCs, also called the classical MC, are the most prevalent MC subset in human blood and express high level of CCR2. The CD14++CD16+ MCs are intermediate MC which contribute significantly to atherosclerosis. The CD14+ CD16++ MCs are referred to as non-classical monocytes which perform a in vivo patrolling function. Mouse MCs are divided into two subsets based on their cell surface expression of Ly6C. The Ly6Chigh and Ly6Cmiddle subsets perform pro-inflammatory functions and express high level of CCR2, which is considered the counterpart of human classical MCs. The Ly6Clow subsets express low level of CCR 2, majorly patrol along the vascular endothelium and are involved in tissue repair, functionally similar to human non-classical MCs. CD, cluster of differentiation; CCR 2, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2; CX3CR1, CX3C chemokine receptor 1; Ly6C, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex.