Nuclear protein IK undergoes dynamic subcellular translocation and forms unique nuclear bodies during the cell cycle
© Hu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 15 November 2012
Accepted: 27 January 2013
Published: 18 February 2013
IK is a nuclear protein containing a unique domain named RED due to the presence of a repetitive arginine (R), aspartic (E), and glutamic acid (D) sequence. To date, the function of this protein remains largely unknown despite of a couple of previous studies in the literature. Here we report that depletion of IK via RNA interference results in mitotic arrest. We also demonstrate that IK undergoes dynamic translocation during interphase and mitosis. In particular, IK is primarily present in some interphase cells as nuclear foci/bodies which do not co-localize with nucleoli, PMA bodies and Cajal bodies. Pull-down analysis coupled with mass spectrometry reveals that IK is associated with DHX15, a putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase. Our results strongly suggest that IK may participate in pre-mRNA splicing and that it may be a useful biomarker for a new nuclear structure in the cell.
IK was originally identified as a cytokine that inhibits interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-induced expression of HLA class II antigen during immune responses in K562 erythroleukemic cell line . The protein got its name IK based on these findings. Human IK contains 557 amino acids and migrates at about 80 kDa on SDS-PAGE . It is also named RED owing to the presence of a repetitive arginine (R), aspartic (E), and glutamic acid (D) sequence . It has also been reported that IK is one of the spliceosome factors [3, 4]. Screening of an siRNA library containing 23,835 human genes reveals that depletion of IK induces mitotic arrest, primarily characterized by having a high mitotic index . A recent study shows that IK is required for the localization of MAD1, a spindle checkpoint protein, to the kinetochores and involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint .
In the present study, we have confirmed that depletion of IK causes mitotic arrest. Our further investigation reveals that the subcellular localization of IK is dynamic during the cell cycle. We also show that the expression of IK is cell cycle-regulated. Affinity pull-down and mass spectrometry analyses reveal that IK interacts with DHX15, a putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase which is implicated in pre-mRNA splicing. Our current study suggests that IK can be explored as a new biomarker for cell proliferation and checkpoint control.
Materials and methods
HeLa cell line was originally obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). Cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and antibiotics (100 μg/ml of penicillin and 50 μg/ml of streptomycin sulfate, Invitrogen) at 37°C under 5% CO2.
Antibodies and plasmids
Antibodies for IK was purchased from Bethyl Laboratory Inc (Montgomery, TX). GFP antibody was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA). Coilin antibody was purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, MA). GFP-IK and His6-IK were subcloned as described in a previous study .
IK small interfering RNAs (IK siRNA) was purchased from Dharmacon, which corresponds to following sequences: NNCAUAUGAGCGGAAUGAGUU. HeLa cells were seeded at 50% confluence in an antibiotic-free culture medium and transfected with siRNAs at a final concentration of 10 nM for 24, 48, or 72 h using the LipoJet™ In Vitro Transfection Kit (Ver. II, Signagen Laboratories, Rockville, MD). Negative controls were cells transfected with 10 nM siRNAs targeting firely (Photinus pyralis) luciferase. The sequence of the control siRNA is 5’UUCCTACGCTGAGTACTTCGA3’ (GL-2, Dharmacon, Waltham, MA).
SDS-PAGE was carried out using the mini gel system from Bio-Rad (Hercules, CA). Proteins were transferred to PVDF membranes. After blocking with TBST containing 5% nonfat dry milk for 1 h, the membrane was incubated overnight with a primary antibody, followed by incubation with a horse reddish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody for 1 h at room temperature. After thorough washing with TBST buffer, signals on the membranes were developed with an enhanced chemiluminescent system (Pierce, Rockford, IL).
Immunoprecipitation and pull-down assay
Immunoprecipitation and pull-down assay were performed as described previously [6, 7]. For pull down assay, HEK293K cells transfected with His6-IK were lysed in a lysis buffer (50 mM sodium phosphate, 300 mM sodium chloride, 20 mM imidazole, 1% NP40, pH 7.4). Ni2+ -IDA-agarose resins (Clonetech, Mountain View, CA) were then added to the cell lysates and incubated with gentle agitation at 4°C overnight. The resin was then washed three times with the washing buffer [50 mM sodium phosphate, 300 mM sodium chloride, 40 mM imidazole (pH 7.4)]. After last wash, His6-tagged products were eluted in the elution buffer (50 mM sodium phosphate, 300 mM sodium chloride, 300 mM imidazole, pH 7.4). The elutes were diluted in a lyses buffer [20 mM Tris (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton, 2 mM sodium pyrophosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM NaF, 1 mM sodium orthovanadate, 500 μM PMSF, 2 μM pepstatin A, 10 units/ml aprotinin, 20 mM NEM] and cleared by centrifugation. The anti-IK antibody or control IgG (1 μg) as well as protein G-agarose (40 μl) resins (50/50, Millipore, Billerica, MA) were then added to cell lysates and incubated at 4°C overnight. The resins were then extensively washed with the lysis buffer. Proteins bound to the resin were eluted with SDS sample buffer and then subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot with appropriate antibodies.
Fluorescence microscopy was performed as described in our previous studies . Briefly, HeLa cells seeded on chamber slides were transfected with various expression constructs for 48 h. At the end of transfection, cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS for 20 min at room temperature. After permeabilization by incubation with 0.5% Triton X100 in PBS for 20 min, cells were incubated with 2% bovine serum albumin in PBS for 1 h followed by incubating overnight with the antibody to GFP. Cells were stained with Alexa Fluor 488. Cellular DNA was finally stained with 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, Molecular Probe, Eugene, OR). Fluorescence signals were detected on a Leica TCS SP5 confocal microscope or on a Leica AF6000 fluorescence microscope.
Flow cytometry was performed as described in our early studies . Briefly, cells were initially fixed in 75% ethanol, then suspended in a solution of PBS containing 100 μg/ml of RNase A (Sigma, St Louis, MO) and 10 μg/ml of propidium iodide (Molecular probes, Eugene, OR) and kept at room temperature for 1 h. Cellular fluorescence was then measured using Beckman Coulter Epics XL-MCLTM Flow Cytometer (Fullerton, CA). DNA content was deconvoluted using Muticycle software (Phoenix Flow System, San Diego, CA) to estimate percent of cells in different phases of the cell cycle.
Student’s t test was used to evaluate the difference between two groups. The significant level was set at 0.05.
Since IK contains a distinct RED domain , we speculated that this domain may have a significant role in regulating IK localization, as well as its function. We made two plasmid constructs containing GFP-tagged deletion mutants of IK (IK280 and IK380). IK280 contains the N-terminal region of IK without the RED domain and the C-terminal region next to the RED domain whereas IK380 has the RED domain but without the C-terminal region (Figure 2B). We transfected these and the wild type IK constructs into HeLa cells. We found that neither IK280 nor IK380 displayed nuclear foci/bodies when they were expressed in HeLa cells (Figure 2C). Moreover, a significant amount of IK280 and IK380 was found in the cytoplasm, which is in contrast to the unique nuclear localization of the full length GFP-IK. These observations suggest that the C-terminal region next to the RED domain (amino acids 380–557) is required for the nuclear localization and the formation of nuclear speckles. The RED domain may or may not be required for these processes.
IK-associated proteins identified by mass spectrometry
IK Protein RED
DHX15 Putative pre-mRNA-splicing factor ATP-dependent RNA helicase DHX15
HSPA1A;HSPA1B Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A/1B
ZNF518B Zinc finger protein 518B
ZSCAN5B Zinc finger and SCAN domain-containing protein 5B
SYTL2 Isoform 2 of Synaptotagmin-like protein 2
WNT3 Proto-oncogene Wnt-3
IL25 Isoform 1 of Interleukin-25
ZNF711 Isoform 3 of Zinc Finger Protein 711
PRKRIR Isoform Long of 52KD repressor of the inhibitor of the protein kinase
LAMB1 Laminin subunit beta-1
In this study, we have shown that extended depletion of IK induces mitotic arrest, which is consistent with an early report . IK is a relatively stable protein with a half life about 24 h, which may explain the delayed mitotic arrest after IK depletion. On the other hand, IK-induced mitotic arrest can be an indirect effect due to affecting the splicing of key cellular targets involved in cell division.
Affinity pull-down and mass spectrometry identify many new proteins interacting with IK. The association of IK with DHX15, a spliceosome factor with a RNA helicase activity, is consistent with the previous observation that IK is a member of the spliceosome [3, 4]. Interestingly, we find that IK does not co-localize with coilin, a main component of the Cajal body (Figure 5B). As IK bodies do not co-localize with nucleoli and PML bodies, these signals may represent a novel nuclear structure. It has been reported that DHX15 directly interacts with Tuftelin-interacting protein (TFIP11), a component of the spliceosome, to promote the release of the lariat-intron during late-stage splicing [13, 14]. TFIP11 has been shown to reside in a structure termed as TFIP11 bodies outside of nucleoli, which are distinct from cajal bodies, PML body, splicing speckles (SC35), paraspeckles, snRNP, hnRNP, or perinucleolar compartment [15, 16]. Thus, it is worthwhile to determine whether IK may also localize to TFIP11 bodies.
The dynamic translocation of IK signals during interphase and mitosis is intriguing. It has been recently reported that IK is a spindle pole-associated protein that colocalizes with MAD1 at spindle poles during metaphase and anaphase . Further studies will be focused on elucidating the relationship between subcellular translocation with its function. It is interesting that the RED domain along does not affect the formation of nuclear bodies and nuclear localization of IK. However, we can not rule out that both the RED domain and the C-terminal region of IK are required for these processes. Further experiments need to be done to address this question. Nonetheless, the unique RED domain is likely to have some functional role. Future study will explore this possibility.
In summary, the current study indicates that IK may play an important role during the cell cycle as depletion of IK induced mitotic arrest. Moreover, the subcellular localization of IK is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. Furthermore, we identify that IK interact with pre-mRNA helicase DHX15, a spliceosome component. Although the association of IK with the spliceosome has been reported [3, 4], this is the first report, to our knowledge, to show the physical association between IK and DHX15. It is likely that regulation of cell cycle progression by IK may also work through controlling mRNA splicing of genes important mitotic progression.
We thank coworkers in the laboratory for valuable discussions and suggestions. We thank James Hu for assistance during the course of the study. This study was supported in part by US Public Service Awards to WD (CA090658 and ES019929) and NIEHS Center grant (ES000260).
- Krief P, Augery-Bourget Y, Plaisance S, Merck MF, Assier E, Tanchou V, Billard M, Boucheix C, Jasmin CAzzarone B: A new cytokine (IK) down-regulating HLA class II: monoclonal antibodies, cloning and chromosome localization. Oncogene 1994,9(12):3449–3456.PubMed
- Assier E, Bouzinba-Segard H, Stolzenberg MC, Stephens R, Bardos J, Freemont P, Charron D, Trowsdale JRich T: Isolation, sequencing and expression of RED, a novel human gene encoding an acidic-basic dipeptide repeat. Gene 1999,230(2):145–154. 10.1016/S0378-1119(99)00066-9PubMedView Article
- Neubauer G, King A, Rappsilber J, Calvio C, Watson M, Ajuh P, Sleeman J, Lamond AMann M: Mass spectrometry and EST-database searching allows characterization of the multi-protein spliceosome complex. Nat Genet 1998,20(1):46–50. 10.1038/1700PubMedView Article
- Zhou Z, Licklider LJ, Gygi SPReed R: Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human spliceosome. Nature 2002,419(6903):182–185. 10.1038/nature01031PubMedView Article
- Rines DR, Gomez-Ferreria MA, Zhou Y, DeJesus P, Grob S, Batalov S, Labow M, Huesken D, Mickanin C, Hall J, Reinhardt M, Natt F, Lange J, Sharp DJ, Chanda SKCaldwell JS: Whole genome functional analysis identifies novel components required for mitotic spindle integrity in human cells. Genome Biol 2008,9(2):R44. 10.1186/gb-2008-9-2-r44PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Yeh PC, Yeh CC, Chen YCJuang YL: RED, a spindle pole-associated protein, is required for kinetochore localization of MAD1, mitotic progression, and activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. J Biol Chem 2012,287(15):11704–11716. 10.1074/jbc.M111.299131PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Yang F, Huang YDai W: Sumoylated BubR1 plays an important role in chromosome segregation and mitotic timing. Cell Cycle 2012,11(4):797–806. 10.4161/cc.11.4.19307PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Liu XS, Zhao XD, Wang X, Yao YX, Zhang LL, Shu RZ, Ren WH, Huang Y, Huang L, Gu MM, Kuang Y, Wang L, Lu SY, Chi J, Fen JS, Wang YF, Fei J, Dai WWang ZG: Germinal Cell Aplasia in Kif18a Mutant Male Mice Due to Impaired Chromosome Congression and Dysregulated BubR1 and CENP-E. Genes Cancer 2010,1(1):26–39. 10.1177/1947601909358184PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Hu L, Liu X, Chervona Y, Yang F, Tang MS, Darzynkiewicz ZDai W: Chromium induces chromosomal instability, which is partly due to deregulation of BubR1 and Emi1, two APC/C inhibitors. Cell Cycle 2011,10(14):2373–2379. 10.4161/cc.10.14.16310PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Velma V, Broome HJHebert MD: Regulated specific proteolysis of the Cajal body marker protein coilin. Chromosoma 2012,121(6):629–642. 10.1007/s00412-012-0387-4PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Platani M, Goldberg I, Lamond AISwedlow JR: Cajal body dynamics and association with chromatin are ATP-dependent. Nat Cell Biol 2002,4(7):502–508. 10.1038/ncb809PubMedView Article
- Novotny I, Blazikova M, Stanek D, Herman PMalinsky J: In vivo kinetics of U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP formation in Cajal bodies. Mol Biol Cell 2011,22(4):513–523. 10.1091/mbc.E10-07-0560PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Wen X, Tannukit SPaine ML: TFIP11 interacts with mDEAH9, an RNA helicase involved in spliceosome disassembly. Int J Mol Sci 2008,9(11):2105–2113. 10.3390/ijms9112105PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Tannukit S, Crabb TL, Hertel KJ, Wen X, Jans DAPaine ML: Identification of a novel nuclear localization signal and speckle-targeting sequence of tuftelin-interacting protein 11, a splicing factor involved in spliceosome disassembly. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009,390(3):1044–1050. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.10.111PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Wen X, Lei YP, Zhou YL, Okamoto CT, Snead MLPaine ML: Structural organization and cellular localization of tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11). Cell Mol Life Sci 2005,62(9):1038–1046. 10.1007/s00018-005-4547-zPubMedView Article
- Yoshimoto R, Kataoka N, Okawa KOhno M: Isolation and characterization of post-splicing lariat-intron complexes. Nucleic Acids Res 2009,37(3):891–902. 10.1093/nar/gkn1002PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.