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Table 1 The cellular components of the TIME in pancreatic cancer

From: The role of pyroptosis in modulating the tumor immune microenvironment

Cells Cell-derived cytokines Function
Cancer cells CCL-2, TGF-β, ICAM-1, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β TAM (↑), MDSC (↑), PSC (↑), Treg (↑)
CD8+T cells (↓), NK cells (↓)
Cancer cells (↑), TAM (↑), MDSC (↑)
NK cells (↓), CD8 + T cells (↓), DC (↓)
TAM TGF-α, TGF-β, IL-10,
IL-6, Arg-1
Cancer cells (↑), Treg (↑), Th17 (↑)
CD8+T cells (↓), NK cells (↓)
MDSC Arg-1, NO, IL-6 Cancer cells (↑)
CD8+T cells (↓), NK cells (↓)
DC IL-23, TGF-β Th17 (↑)
CD8+T cells (↓)
Treg TGF-β, IL-10 PSC (↑)
CD8+T cells (↓), NK cells (↓)
  1. ↑, the function of cells is enhanced; ↓, the function of cells is inhibited. aPSC activated pancreatic stellate cells, CAF cancer-associated fibroblasts, DC dendritic cells, MDSC myeloid-derived suppressor cells, NK cells natural killer cells, TAM M2 tumor-associated macrophages, Th17 helper T cells 17, Treg regulatory T cells