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Table 1 CTC Detection Technologies

From: Detection and clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in colorectal cancer

Principle Material/Device Characteristic Target Tumor Type Sensitivity% Specificity% Viability% Ref
Immunoaffinity Immunomagnetic Immunonanocomposites equipped with fluorescence and magnetic properties (ZnS:Mn2+ quantum dots and Fe3O4/SiO2), which achieved capture and identification of CTCs simultaneously. EpCAM CRC/BC 90.8 [23]
Nanofibers Poly ethylene oxide(PEO) was blended into nylon-6 through electrospinning to produce a fibrous mat-based CTCs detection method. High cell-substrate affinity and low leukocyte adsorption. EpCAM CRC 66.7–70.6 > 99 [24]
bio-microchip ZnO nanowire coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pillar microchips with a gear structure. More binding sites and rough surface. EpCAM CRC/BC 91.11 ± 5.53 96 [25]
Immunomagnetic Tumor-targeting molecule FA and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated red blood cells. Natural cell membrane avoided absorption by leukocytes. FR BC > 90 > 75 > 90 [26]
Nanovesicles FA and fluorescein Cy5 coated erythrocyte-derived nanovesicles. Achieving Tumor targeting and fluorescence imaging simultaneously. FR CRC/BC > 95 > 90 [27]
Fluorescent probe FA functionalized terbium-doped dendritic fibrous nanosilica fluorescence spectrometry. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were utilized to verify the uptake of the fluorescent probe with FR-positive tumor cells. FR CRC 85 > 80 [28]
Immunomagnetic rVAR2 protein coated micromagnetic beads. rVAR2 binding is unaffected by phenotypic plasticity. ofCS HCC/LC/PAAD/PC 86.0–91.9 [30]
Immunomagnetic rVAR2 protein coated micromagnetic beads. ofCS GBMLGG 54–75 [31]
Microfluidic Membrane protein O-glycan sialyl-Tn (STn) glycan-affinity microfluidic devices. sTn CRC 22 > 99.5 [36]
Immunomagnetic EpCAM incombination with EGFR and HER3 based enrichment can significantly improve the detection rate of CTCs. EpCAM/EGFR/HER3 NSCLC 66.7 [37]
Immuno-microbeads Anti-EpCAM and anti-CD146 antibodies functionalized gelatin nanoparticle-coated silicon microbeads (SiO2@Gel MBs). SiO2@Gel MBs have large size and high density. The gelatin coating allows the release of captured CTCs with low damage and high efficiency. EpCAM/CD146 BC/CRC > 80 > 85 92.5 [38]
Immunomagnetic FA and anti-EpCAM antibody functionalized magnetic hyaluronan capsules. EpCAM/FR BC > 88 95 [39]
Microfluidic A platform integrated of dendrimer-mediated multivalent binding, a mixture of antibodies and biomimetic cell rolling. EPCAM/EGFR/CA9/c-Met RCC 80 [40]
Magnetic dynamic microbiointerface A saccharide-sensitive biomimetic microplatform, which can mimick the dynamic properties of natural excellular matrix. Good biocompatibility, high capture efficiency, excellent cell selectivity. mussel-inspired cancer cell-targeting peptide BC 85 [42]
AuNPs Electrochemical Gold nanoparticle-based multipedal DNA walker. TCEP-mediated electrochemical amplification is used to further enhance the electrochemical signal. High sensitivity and anti-interference ability. DNA probes ALL > 96.3 [43]
Biophysical Properties Microfluidic A spiral microchannel with inherent centrifugal force. Taking advantage of two phenomena: Dean migration and inertial focusing. Only the larger CTC undergo inertial focusing and be collected.   LC 100 10 > 98 [52]
Microfiltration A 3D palladium filter with an 8 mm-sized pore and a 30 mm-sized pocket. A device driven by gravity flow.   BC/GC/CRC/PAAD > 85 [53]
Microfiltration A high-density microporous (HDM) chip. High sensitivity and specificity, simplicity, and low cost, enables subsequent single cell molecular characterization and analysis.   CRC 65.8 96 [54]
Density gradient centrifugation The unique separation tube and collector of AccuCyte system enable the complete separation of the buffy coat layer of white blood cells and platelets.   BC/PC/CRC 90.5 81 [57]
Microfluidic Consist of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) isolating structure, an automatic purifying device with CD45-labeled immunomagnetic beads and a rat-tail collagen coated capturing platform.   LC 90 50 > 90 [58]
Microfluidic A sequential ensemble decision aliquot ranking (eDAR) chip with two sorting nodes. CTCs are detected by laser-induced fluorescence(PE-EpCAM), then the CTC-detection signals activate a solenoid and change the pressure of flow to achieve sorting at two junctions.   BC > 90 70 [61]