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Table 2 Characteristics of neoantigen-based therapy

From: Targeting neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy

Therapy type Peptide vaccine DNA vaccine mRNA vaccine Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine T cell-based therapy
Material Synthetic long peptide Double stranded (dsDNA) mRNA encapsulation in carriers Neoantigen-loaded autologous dendritic cells Neoantigen-specific autologous T cell
Immunogenicity Low/Moderate Low/Moderate Low/Moderate High High
Neoantigen number Up to 20 ~ 30 Up to 20 ~ 30 Up to 20 ~ 30 Up to 20 ~ 30 Few
Human leucocyte (HLA)-subtype restricted Yes No No Yes Yes
Advantage Low toxicity; easy to manufacture Low toxicity; easy to manufacture on large scale Low toxicity; easy to manufacture on large scale N/A N/A
Difficulty Restricted to HLA subtype; costly and difficult purification of proteins and equipping the proteins with natural, post-translational modifications. Need to enter the nucleus to express the antigen Improving mRNA stability and preventing from degradation; harsh storage condition Expensive; labor-consuming DC generation Expensive; labor-consuming identification and isolation of these mutation specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and T cell receptors (TCRs)
Severe side effect N/A N/A N/A N/A Cytokine release syndrome