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Table 1 Biomarkers suggested to predict neoadjuvant treatment response in rectal cancer

From: Biomarkers and cell-based models to predict the outcome of neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer patients

Category Type Parameter
Molecular genetic markers DNA mismatch repair [11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21] dMMR, MSI, MSI-H
MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways [22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37] EGF, EGFR, VEGF, RAS, KRAS, BRAF, PTEN, NF1
Tumour suppressors and oncogenes [38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46] TP53, XIAP, TCF4
Transcriptome/Epigenome [47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71] Transcriptomic and epigenetic signatures, miR-130a, miR-487a-3p, TIMP3 methylation
Immunological markers Blood-based
immunological markers [72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86]
P/L ratio, N/L ratio, cytokines, C-reactive protein
Tissue-based
immunological markers [87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119]
LNR, TILs, PD-1 and PD-L1
Other biomarkers Blood-based cancer markers [120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139] CTCs, cfDNA, ctDNA, CEA
Gut microbiota [140,141,142,143,144] Fusobacteria, Bacteroidales, Duodenibacillus massiliensis
  1. Abbreviations: dMMR Mismatch repair deficient, MSI Mismatch repair instable, MSI-H Mismatch repair instable-high, EGF Epidermal growth factor, EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor, VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor, RAS Rat sarcoma, KRAS Kirsten rat sarcoma, BRAF V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1, PTEN Phosphatase and tensin homolog, NF1 Neurofibromin 1, TP53 Tumour protein p53, XIAP X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, TCF4 Transcription factor 4, TIMP3 Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 3, P/L ratio Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, N/L ratio Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, LNR Lymph node ratio, TILs Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, PD-1 Programmed cell death protein 1, PD-L1 Programmed death-ligand 1, CTCs Circulating tumour cells, cfDNA Cell-free DNA, ctDNA Circulating tumour DNA, CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen