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Table 2 Cox proportional hazards model of risk factors for all-cause mortality among patients with or without receiving empiric therapeutic AC

From: Empiric use of anticoagulation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a propensity score-matched study of risks and benefits

  All matched patients Patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation
  Death/N at risk (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Death/N at risk (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Empiric therapeutic AC
No 131/215 (60.9) Reference     118/141 (83.7) Reference   Reference  
Yes 80/133 (60.2) 0.792 (0.619–1.013) 0.063    74/98 (75.5) 0.536 (0.413–0.695) < 0.001* 0.476 (0.345–0.657) < 0.001*
Age
  < 65 years old 103/199 (51.8) Reference   Reference   98/138 (71.0) Reference   Reference  
  ≥ 65 years old 108/149 (72.5) 1.423 (1.190–1.701) < 0.001* 1.028 (1.014–1.142) < 0.001* 90/101 (89.1) 1.276 (1.042–1.563) 0.008* 1.207 (1.006–1.526) 0.015*
Gender
Male 133/221 (60.2) Reference     119/151 (78.8) Reference    
Female 78/127 (61.4) 0.915 (0.692–1.211) 0.536    73/88 (83.0) 0.920 (0.687–1.232) 0.577   
Ethnicity
Non-Latinx 56/97 (57.7) Reference     51/64 (79.7) Reference    
Latinx 155/251 (61.8) 0.930 (0.709–1.221) 0.603    141/175 (80.6) 1.082 (0.806–1.453) 0.598   
Body-mass index
  < 30 104/181 (57.4) Reference     87/111 (78.4) Reference    
  ≥ 30 107/167 (64.1) 1.011 (0.995–1.027) 0.188    105/128 (82.0) 1.002 (0.986–1.018) 0.818   
Comorbidities
Diabetes mellitus 91/146 (62.3) 1.087 (0.828–1.428) 0.548    81/102 (79.4) 0.996 (0.748–1.326) 0.975   
Hypertension 105/168 (62.1) 1.126 (0.860–1.475) 0.389    89/106 (84.0) 1.214 (0.914–1.613) 0.180   
COPD/asthma 45/63 (71.4) 1.429 (1.028–1.988) 0.034*    45/50 (90.0) 1.502 (1.074–2.101) 0.017*   
Congestive heart failure 11/18 (61.1) 1.196 (0.652–2.195) 0.564    10/11 (90.9) 1.196 (1.067–3.846) 0.031*   
Chronic kidney disease 23/35 (65.7) 1.196 (0.775–1.843) 0.419    17/22 (77.3) 0.899 (0.547–1.480) 0.676   
Cancer 21/29 (72.4) 1.341 (0.854–2.106) 0.202    16/19 (84.2) 1.000 (0.599–1.668) 1.000   
CCI
  < 2 66/120 (55.0) Reference     65/84 (77.4) Reference    
  ≥ 2 145/228 (63.6) 1.469 (1.000–2.799) 0.050    127/155 (81.9) 1.411 (0.908–2.931) 0.091   
COVID-19 severity
Moderate 8/45 (17.8) Reference   Reference   4/9 (44.4) Reference   Reference  
Severe 61/127 (48.0) 2.282 (1.091–4771) 0.028* 2.319 (1.092–4.924) 0.029* 45/61 (73.7) 2.442 (0.882–6.765) 0.086   
Critical 142 /176 (80.7) 3.242 (1.588–6.620) 0.001* 3.537 (1.706–7.330) 0.001* 143/169 (84.6) 2.810 (1.011–6.921) 0.033* 2.120 (1.004–6.715) 0.025*
Sepsis
No 143/262 (54.6) Reference   Reference   130/170 (76.5) Reference   Reference  
Yes 68/86 (79.1) 2.456 (1.675–3.602) < 0.001* 1.354 (1.005–1.795) 0.043* 62/69 (89.9) 1.531 (1.160–2.764) 0.012* 1.414 (1.012–2.705) 0.032*
Acute kidney injury
No 128/226 (56.6) Reference     117/152 (77.0) Reference    
Yes 83/122 (68.0) 1.367 (1.037–1.802) 0.027*    75/87 (86.2) 1.463 (0.952–2.247) 0.083   
HAS-BLED score
  ≥ 1 vs < 1 190/307 (61.9) vs 21/41 (51.2) 1.267 (0.942–1.693) 0.119    171/212 (80.7) vs 21/27 (77.8) 1.203 (0.762–1.898) 0.427   
  ≥ 2 vs < 2 143/218 (65.9) vs 68/130 (52.3) 1.482 (1.110–1.980) 0.008*    125/153 (81.7) vs 67/86 (77.9) 1.250 (0.928–1.684) 0.141   
  ≥ 3 vs < 3 65/88 (73.9) vs 146/260 (56.2) 1.368 (1.032–1.952) 0.015*    59/70 (84.3) vs 133/169 (78.7) 1.128 (0.829–1.535) 0.443   
  1. AC anticoagulation, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, HAS-BLED Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile International Normalized Ratio (INR), Elderly, Drugs or alcohol use, HR hazard ratio
  2. *Significant at p < 0.05