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Table 1 Characteristics of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving empiric therapeutic AC versus prophylactic AC

From: Empiric use of anticoagulation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a propensity score-matched study of risks and benefits

  Prior to Propensity Score Match After Propensity Score Match
Parameters Therapeutic AC (n = 165) Prophylactic AC (n = 764) p value Therapeutic AC (n = 133) Prophylactic AC (n = 215) p value
Age, median (IQR) 61 (54–72) 62 (50–75) 0.894 62 (54–72) 65 (52–75) 0.345
Age categories, n (%)    0.001*    0.064
18–39 11 (5.3) 87 (11.4)   6 (4.5) 19 (8.8)  
40–59 78 (37.3) 244 (31.9)   50 (37.6) 61 (28.4)  
60–79 101 (48.3) 309 (40.4)   65 (48.9) 101 (47.0)  
≥80 19 (9.1) 124 (16.2)   12 (9.0) 34 (15.8)  
Gender, Female, n (%) 77 (36.8) 336 (44.0) 0.064 47 (35.3) 80 (37.2) 0.725
Ethnicity, n (%)    0.348    0.737
Latinx 141 (67.5) 482 (63.0)   97 (72.9) 154 (71.6)  
Black 62 (29.7) 236 (31.0)   34 (25.6) 55 (25.6)  
White 4 (1.9) 29 (3.8)   2 (1.5) 6 (2.8)  
Asian 2 (1.0) 17 (2.2)   0 0  
Body Mass Index, median (IQR) 30.1 (26.2–35.0) 29.0 (25.0–33.7) 0.066 30.2 (26.4–35.0) 29.4 (25.0–34.2) 0.155
Body Mass Index categories, n (%)    0.136    0.258
Underweight 1 (0.6) 14 (1.8)   1 (0.8) 5 (2.3)  
Normal 28 (17.0) 170 (22.3)   21 (15.8) 42 (19.1)  
Overweight 49 (29.7) 244 (31.9)   39 (29.3) 74 (34.4)  
Obesity 107 (51.2) 327 (42.8)   72 (54.1) 95 (44.2)  
Current smoker, n (%) 4 (1.9) 36 (4.7) 0.071 1 (0.8) 3 (1.4) 1.000
Past diagnosis, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 94 (45.0) 358 (46.9) 0.629 55 (41.4) 91 (42.3) 0.858
 Hypertension 120 (57.4) 322 (42.1) < 0.001* 67 (50.4) 102 (47.4) 0.595
 Chronic lung disease 34 (16.3) 148 (19.4) 0.308 24 (18.0) 39 (18.1) 0.982
 Congestive heart failure 8 (3.8) 55 (7.2) 0.049* 6 (4.5) 12 (5.6) 0.661
 Chronic kidney disease, stage> 3 24 (11.5) 105 (13.7) 0.393 12 (9.0) 23 (10.7) 0.614
 Cancer 19 (9.1) 52 (6.8) 0.260 10 (7.5) 19 (8.8) 0.665
 Chronic liver disease and Cirrhosis 9 (5.5) 20 (2.6) 0.047* 6 (4.5) 10 (4.7) 0.952
 HIV, transplant, and other immunosuppression status 7 (4.2) 34 (4.5) 0.906 7 (5.3) 11 (5.1) 0.952
 Charlson Comorbidities Index (CCI), median (IQR) 3 (1–4) 3 (1–5) 0.909 2 (1–4) 3 (1–4) 0.976
 HAS-BLED score, median (IQR) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–4) 0.061 2 (1–2) 2 (1–3) 0.109
Initial symptoms, n (%)
 Fever 127 (60.8) 461 (60.3) 0.911 83 (62.4) 129 (60.0) 0.655
 Cough 148 (70.8) 497 (65.1) 0.118 97 (72.9) 149 (69.3) 0.470
 Dyspnea 166 (79.4) 520 (68.1) 0.001* 107 (80.5) 167 (77.7) 0.538
 Gastrointestinal symptoms 33 (15.8) 205 (26.8) 0.001* 24 (18.0) 51 (23.7) 0.211
 Neurologic symptoms 37 (17.7) 132 (17.3) 0.885 22 (16.5) 45 (20.9) 0.313
Initial laboratory test, median (IQR)
 White blood cell count [4.8–10.8 × 10 3/μL] 10.0 (7.0–13.2) 7.6 (5.5–10.4) < 0.001* 9.8 (6.9–12.5) 9.0 (6.6–11.5) 0.165
 Absolute lymphocyte cell count [1.0–4.8 × 10 3/μL] 1.0 (0.6–1.3) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 0.027* 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 0.428
 Absolute neutrophil cell count [1.8–7.8 × 10 3/μL] 8.5 (5.6–11.3) 5.7 (3.9–8.4) < 0.001* 8.4 (5.3–10.6) 7.2 (4.9–9.5) 0.077
 Hemoglobin [14–18 g/dL] 13.2 (11.9–14.3) 13.2 (11.6–14.5) 0.864 13.0 (11.6–14.1) 13.1 (11.5–14.6) 0.467
 Platelet count [150–450/μL] 248.0 (194.0–312.0) 215.0 (167.0–275.0) < 0.001* 241.0 (192.5–307.5) 232.0 (177.0–310.0) 0.462
 D-dimer [<=230 ng/mL] 1207.0 (413.0–5721.0) 498.0 (258.0–897.0) < 0.001* 882.0 (403.0–3278.5) 793.0 (393.0–2024.1) 0.051
 Lactate dehydrogenase [135–225 U/L] 592.5 (457.0–768.8) 457.0 (333.3–640.8) < 0.001* 599.0 (459.0–724.5) 605.0 (398.0–715.0) 0.597
 C-reactive protein [0–0.40 mg/dL] 19.1 (10.8–30.0) 11.3 (5.5–21.3) < 0.001* 20.7 (11.2–27.1) 18.3 (10.8–26.5) 0.368
 Interleukin-6 [0–5.5 pg/mL] 129.5 (62.1–285.8) 78.3 (27.1–172.3) < 0.001* 221.7 (92.6–299.5) 238.6 (96.7–278.7) 0.249
 Ferritin [12–300 ng/mL] 883.0 (492.0–1606.0) 688.0 (365.0–1224.5) 0.002* 1070.0 (502.5–1532.5) 1067.0 (562.0–1387.5) 0.568
Radiographic findings, n (%)
 Bilateral patchy infiltrates 131 (62.7) 412 (53.9) 0.024* 91 (68.4) 129 (60.0) 0.137
 Ground glass opacity 82 (39.2) 217 (28.4) 0.003* 53 (39.8) 70 (32.6) 0.238
 Consolidation 19 (9.1) 102 (13.4) 0.098 12 (9.0) 26 (12.1) 0.207
 Atelectasis 4 (1.9) 33 (4.3) 0.107 2 (1.5) 7 (3.3) 0.491
Other medications received, n (%)
 Hydroxychloroquine 167 (79.9) 542 (70.9) 0.010* 105 (78.9) 165 (76.6) 0.589
 Azithromycin 177 (84.7) 553 (72.4) < 0.001* 111 (83.4) 173 (80.6) 0.480
 Remdesevir 15 (7.2) 1 (0.1) < 0.001* 1 (0.8) 1 (0.5) 0.555
 Sarilumab/Tocilizumab 26 (12.4) 35 (4.6) < 0.001* 15 (11.3) 20 (9.4) 0.540
 Convalescent plasma 22 (10.5) 6 (0.8) < 0.001* 7 (5.3) 6 (3.0) 0.122
 Stress dose of steroid 55 (33.3) 74 (9.7) < 0.001* 28 (18.6) 40 (18.4) 0.756
 COVID-19 severity classification on admission, n (%)    < 0.001*    0.458
 Moderate 21 (10.0) 378 (49.3)   13 (9.8) 32 (14.9)  
 Severe 83 (39.7) 209 (27.4)   47 (35.3) 80 (37.2)  
 Critical 105 (50.2) 177 (23.2)   73 (54.9) 103 (47.9)  
 Sepsis by quick SOFA on admission, n (%) 37 (22.4) 230 (30.1) 0.048* 35 (26.3) 51 (23.7) 0.586
 Acute kidney injury on admission, n (%) 53 (32.1) 218 (28.5) 0.358 45 (33.8) 77 (35.8) 0.707
Hospital course (unmatched)
 Invasive mechanical ventilation, n (%) 128 (77.6) 221 (28.9) < 0.001* 98 (73.7) 141 (65.6) 0.113
 Major bleeding, n (%) 23 (14.1) 27 (3.5) < 0.001* 18 (13.8) 8 (3.9) < 0.001*
 Days of hospitalization, median (IQR) 11 (6–21) 7 (4–12) < 0.001* 9 (6–19) 7 (5–12) < 0.001*
 All-cause mortality, n (%) 83 (50.3) 165 (21.6) < 0.001* 80 (60.2) 131 (60.9) 0.885
  1. *Significant at p < 0.05