Skip to main content

Table 2 List of CAF subpopulations and biomarkers newly identified

From: Biomarkers for cancer-associated fibroblasts

CAF subsets Biomarkers Tumor tissues Signatures/functions Refs
pan-CAF CD49e Ovarian cancer   [23]
myCAF α-SMAhighIL-6low; RGS5 PDAC; TNBC; bladder cancer Myofibroblast-like; matrix deposition; [14, 56, 58]
iCAF α-SMAlowIL-6high; PDGFR; CXCL12; Ly6c1high; FBLN1 PDAC; TNBC; bladder cancer; ICC Inflammatory infiltration; chemokines and cytokines secretion; tumor-promoting [14, 56,57,58,59]
apCAF MHC-II gene; CD74 PDAC; TNBC; ICC Antigen presenting; immunomodulation [57,58,59]
vCAF MCAM; IL-6 ICC Response to hypoxia; mesenchymal cell proliferation [59]
mCAF POSTN; COL5A1 ECM; collagen fibril organization
EMT-like CAF KRT19 Epithelium-like
vCAF Nidogen-2 Breast cancer Vascular development; angiogenesis [60]
mCAF Fibulin-1; PDGFRα ECM and EMT
developmental CAF SCRG1 Differentiation of cells; development and morphogenesis of tissues
CAF-A MMP2; DCN; COL1A2 Colorectal cancer ECM remodeling [61]
CAF-B α-SMA; TAGCN; PDGFA Myofibroblast-like
CAF-cluster2 CDK1 TNBC Cell cycling [58]
CAF-cluster3 CD53 Structural integrity and function of muscle
CAF-cluster4 CRABP1 Basement membrane protease associated
Immunomodulatory CAF IL-6; IL-10; C1QA/B/C; CFB; CXCL1/2/10/12 HGSOC Immunomodulation [62]
CAF-S1/S4 CD29; FAP; α-SMA; FSP1; PDGFRβ; CAV1 Breast cancer; ovarian cancer Immunomodulation; myCAFs and iCAFs [63,64,65,66]
CAF-S2/S3 Not activated
CD10+GPR77+ CAFs CD10; GPR77 Breast and lung cancer Promoting cancer formation and chemoresistance [54]