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Table 2 Roles of tRNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves in cancer drug resistance

From: Mechanisms of tRNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves in cancer treatment resistance

Cancer tRFs and tiRNAs Findings References
breast cancer tDR-0009
tDR-0009 and tDR-7336 can maintain cell response to IL-6, which participates in multidrug resistance by activating the JAK/STAT3, PI3K/Akt, and Ras-MAPK pathways. [13, 50]
tDR-0124 and tDR-11,898 are involved in chemoresistance [13]
  tRF-30-JZOYJE22RR33 tRF-27-ZDXPHO53KSN trastuzumab resistance [12]
  tDR-5334 tamoxifen resistance [16, 51]
  tDR-4733 tDR-4733 mediates acquired resistance to HER2 inhibitors through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. [52]
  5′-tiRNAVal 5′-tiRNAVal can directly bind to FZD3 and inhibit the FZD3-mediated Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is related to tamoxifen and doxorubicin resistance. [18]
  tRF-2 derived from
tRNAGlu, tRNAAsp,
tRNAGly and tRNATyr
tRFs increase chemosensitivity of various tumors by replacing 3′-UTR from YBX1. [23, 53]
  ts-46, ts-47 ts-46 and ts-47 are upregulated by PIK3CA and KRAS mutations, respectively. These two mutations are involved in the resistance of breast cancer cells to lapatinib. [26]
lung cancer tRF-Leu-CAG tRF-Leu-CAG may be related to AURKA. AURKA overexpression induces gefitinib and cisplatin resistance. [27, 54, 55]
  ts-101, ts-46, ts-47 Mediate multidrug resistance [25]
pancreatic cancer tRF-1391 Target genes of tRF-1391 are mainly concentrated in the PI3K/Akt pathway, which is related to doxorubicin resistance. [28, 56]
colorectal cancer tRF/miR-1280 tRF/miR-1280 binds to 3′-UTR of JAG2, thus inhibiting Notch/Gata and miR-200b signaling. JAG2, Notch, Gata, and miR-200b are related to drug resistance. [29]
chemoresistance [30]
ovarian cancer tRF-03357
tRFs are involved in the MAPK, FoxO, and Wnt pathways and affect sensitivity to cisplatin. [40]
chronic lymphocytic leukemia ts-101, ts-53, ts-46, ts-47 unclear [25]