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Table 1 Roles of tRNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves in cancers

From: Mechanisms of tRNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves in cancer treatment resistance

Cancer tRFs and tiRNAs Type Findings References
breast cancer tRF-30-JZOYJE22RR33
tRF-27-ZDXPHO53KSN
tRF Independent predictors of PFS in HER-2-positive breast cancer [12]
  tRF-0009
tDR-7336
tRF Facilitate doxorubicin resistance [13, 14]
  tRF3E tiRNA-3 tumor suppressor [15]
  tDR-7816 tRF diagnostic biomarker of early non-TNBC [16]
  ts-112 tRF ts-112 inhibition reduces the proliferative capacity of aggressive breast cancer cells. [17]
  5′-tiRNAVal tiRNA-5 5′-tiRNAVal overexpression significantly suppresses
breast tumor cell proliferation,
migration and invasion.
[18]
  tRF-32-Q99P9P9NH57SJ tiRNA-5 tumour stage and lymph node metastasis [19]
  SHOT-RNAAsp-GUC
SHOT-RNAHis-GUG
SHOT-RNALys-CUU
tiRNA SHOT-RNAs enhance cell proliferation. [20]
  tDR-000620 tRF aggressive phenotype of breast cancer stem cells [21]
  5′-tiRNAAsp, 5′-tiRNAHis tiRNA-5 elevate in breast cancer [22]
  tRFGlu-YTC
tRFAsp-GTC
tRFGly-TCC
i-tRF suppress cell proliferation and cancer metastasis [23]
  tRFSer-GCT i-tRF Unknown [24]
  tRF-2 derived from
tRNAGlu, tRNAAsp,
tRNAGly, and tRNATyr
tRF-2 Bind to YBX1 by displacing 3′-UTR, thus suppressing cancer cell growth and metastasis [25]
  ts-46, ts-47 tRF-1 ts-46 and ts-47 are upregulated by PIK3CA and KRAS mutations, respectively. These two mutations are involved in the resistance of breast cancer cells to lapatinib. [26]
lung cancer ts-101
ts-53
tRF-1 Associate with PiwiL2, an essential protein involved in silencing of transposons [25]
  ts-46
ts-47
tRF-1 have inhibitory effect on the ability of lung cancer cells to form colonies [25]
  tRFLeu − CAG tiRNA-5 Promote cell proliferation and G0/G1 cell cycle progression [27]
pancreatic cancer AS-tDR-000064
AS-tDR-000069
AS-tDR-000102
AS-tDR-001391
tiRNA-5 diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers [28]
colorectal cancer tRF/miR-1280 tRNALeu and pre-miRNA suppress colorectal cancer growth and metastasis [29]
  tiRNA-Tyr-GTA tiRNA-5 Targets of tiRNA-Tyr-GTA are mainly enriched in the PPAR signaling pathway. [30]
  tRF-Gln-CTG tRF-5c Negative regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade is enriched in tRF-Gln-CTG. Inhibition of JNK cascade can reduce the migration potential of colon cancer cells in vitro. [30]
  tRF-Leu-TAG tRF-5a Function of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition is enriched in tRF-Leu-TAG. [30]
  5′-tRF-LysTTT,
5′-tRF-ValCAC,
5′-tRF-GluCTC,
5′-tRF-ProCGG
tRF-5 Associate with chemotherapy
treatment outcomes
[26]
prostate cancer tRF-1001 tRF-1 TRF-1001 is required for cell proliferation. [31]
  tRNALys-CTT
tRNAPhe-GAA
tRF The ratio of tRFs derived from tRNALys-CTT and tRNAPhe-GAA is a good indicator of progression-free survival. [32]
  tRF-544
tRF-315
tRF-5
tRF-3
High expression ratio of tRF-315/tRF-544 predicts poor PFS. [32]
  SHOT-RNAAsp-GUC
SHOT-RNAHis-GUG
SHOT-RNALys-CUU
tiRNA SHOT-RNAs enhance cell proliferation. [20]
liver cancer tRFSer tRF-3 Cleavage of tRNAs during stress [33]
cervical cancer tRFGln tRF-5 inhibit the process of protein translation [34]
clear cell renal cell carcinoma 5′-tRNA4-Val-AAC tiRNA-5 advanced stage and grade [35]
  5′-tiRNA-Arg-CCT,
5′-tiRNA-Glu-CTC,
5′-tiRNA-Leu-CAG,
5′-tiRNA-Lys-TTT
tiRNA-5 Potential tumor suppressors [36]
B cell lymphoma CU1276 (tRF-3018) tRF-3 CU1276 associates with argonaute proteins, represses endogenous RPA1, suppresses proliferation, and modulates molecular response to DNA damage. Loss of CU1276 expression may confer a growth advantage to malignant cells. [37]
  tRFHis-GTG
tRFLeu-CAG
tRF-3 associate with Ago2 and downregulate target genes by transcript cleavage [38]
ovarian cancer tRF5-Glu tRF-5 Increased tRF5-Glu inhibits the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. [39]
  tRF-03357 tRF-5 tRF-03357 promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. [40]
osteosarcoma tiRNAAla
tiRNACys
tiRNA-5 Inhibit protein synthesis and trigger the phospho-eIF2α-independent assembly of stress granules [41]
  tRFVal tRF-5 tRFVal induces the assembly of cytoprotective stress granules. [41]
chronic lymphocytic leukemia ts-101, ts-53 tRF-1 ts-53 targets the 3′-UTR of TCL1, a key oncogene in the development of aggressive CLL. ts-101 and ts-53 associate with PiwiL2, an essential protein involved in silencing of transposons. [42]
  ts-46, ts-47 tRF-1 potential tumor suppressors [43]
  i-tRF-GlyCCC i-tRF predict poor overall survival [44]
  i-tRF-GlyGCC i-tRF prognostic biomarker [45]
  ts-43, ts-44 tRF-5 tumor suppressors [46]
head and neck squamous cell carcinoma 5′-tiRNAAla
5′-tiRNACys
5′-tiRNATyr
tiRNA-5 significantly increase [47]
uveal melanoma tRF-22-BP4MJYSZH
tRF-21-45DBNIB9B
i-tRF associated with metastasis and patient survival [48]
gastric cancer tRF-3019a tRF tRF-3019a overexpression enhances gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion [49]
testicular germ cell
tumor
tRF (20 nt) tRF Associated with cancerdevelopment and progression [26]