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Table 1 MSC-EVs as a potential therapy invarious disease models

From: Novel insights into MSC-EVs therapy for immune diseases

Disease model Potential molecular mechanism Effect on immune cells Refs
Type 1 diabetes increase the levels of TGF-β, IL-10, IL-6, and PGE2 cytokine strengthen Treg function [45, 63, 64]
Multiple sclerosis increase the levels ofTGF-β, IL-10, PD-L1, and galectin-1 inhibitauto-reactive lymphocyte proliferation; promote generation of Tregs [44]
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus transfer the Fas receptor to reduce the intracellular miR-29b levels rescue bone marrow MSC function [55]
Uveitis decrease levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ inhibit activation of APCs and the development of Th1 and Th17 cells [56]
Osteoarthritis increase the secretion of IL-10 Bregs decrease the plasmablast population [57,58,59]
GVHD decrease the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ; increase the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β reduce CD3 + CD8+ T cell and Th17 cells; induce Treg [60,61,62]
Kidney injury increase the secretion of IL-10 reduce recruitment of macrophages [66, 68]
Cutaneous wound shuttle let-7b promote M2 macrophage activation [34, 71]