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Table 4 Clinical trial enrichment for severe AKI

From: Development of biomarker combinations for postoperative acute kidney injury via Bayesian model selection in a multicenter cohort study

Threshold Number to screen to identify 1 eligible patient Combination/Marker Severe AKI rate among screen positives (untreated) Total sample size required
(None) 1 (None) 4.7% 8156
25th percentile 1.3 Maximum posterior probability combination 6.0% 6328
Median probability combination 6.1% 6166
50th percentile 2 Maximum posterior probability combination 8.0% 4600
Median probability combination 8.0% 4600
75th percentile 4 Maximum posterior probability combination 14.2% 2450
Median probability combination 15.1% 2286
  1. Abbreviations: AKI = acute kidney injury. We calculated sample sizes for a renopreventive treatment for 90% power, alpha = 0.05, and 30% reduction in AKI risk under treatment. A trial that enrolled only “high risk” patients would require fewer patients in the trial due to a higher event rate, while requiring that more patients be screened in order to identify eligible patients