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Table 2 Demographics and clinical variables by sustained mild AKI status

From: Development of biomarker combinations for postoperative acute kidney injury via Bayesian model selection in a multicenter cohort study

  Overall (1219) Sustained Mild AKI
Non-event (1102) Event (117)
Demographics
Age (years), mean (SD) 71.5 (10.1) 71.5 (10.1) 71.1 (10.5)
Male sex, n (%) 826 (68%) 749 (68%) 77 (66%)
White race, n (%) 1141 (94%) 1034 (94%) 107 (91%)
Center, n (%)
 1 109 (9%) 102 (9%) 7 (6%)
 2 67 (5%) 57 (5%) 10 (9%)
 3 104 (9%) 88 (8%) 16 (14%)
 4 534 (44%) 474 (43%) 60 (51%)
 5 51 (4%) 43 (4%) 8 (7%)
 6 354 (29%) 338 (31%) 16 (14%)
Clinical variables
Preoperative eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2), mean (SD) 67.2 (19.4) 67.5 (18.9) 64.9 (23.2)
Diabetes, n (%) 480 (39%) 427 (39%) 53 (45%)
Hypertension, n (%) 961 (79%) 863 (78%) 98 (84%)
Congestive heart failure, n (%) 314 (26%) 264 (24%) 50 (43%)
Type of surgery, n (%)
 CABG or valve 963 (79%) 883 (80%) 80 (68%)
 CABG and valve 255 (21%) 218 (20%) 37 (32%)
Status of procedure, n (%)
 Elective 964 (79%) 883 (80%) 81 (69%)
 Urgent or emergent 255 (21%) 219 (20%) 36 (31%)
Cardiac catheterization <48 h prior to surgery, n (%) 73 (6%) 66 (6%) 7 (6%)
Preoperative myocardial infarction, n (%) 313 (26%) 279 (26%) 34 (29%)
Reoperation, n (%) 155 (13%) 143 (13%) 12 (10%)
CPB time (minutes), mean (SD) 114.2 (59.9) 109.7 (54.1) 155.8 (88.2)
Severe AKI, n (%) 60 (5%) 5 (<1%) 55 (47%)
Biomarkers
Postoperative serum creatinine (mg/dL), median (IQR) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.3 (1.1, 1.7)
Change in serum creatinine (mg/dL), median (IQR) 0 (−0.10, 0.11) 0 (−0.14, 0.10) 0.20 (0, 0.38)
Average serum creatinine (mg/dL), median (IQR) 1.1 (0.9, 1.2) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 1.2 (1.0, 1.5)
Postoperative urine markers, median (IQR)
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 23.7 (12.0, 41.3) 22.9 (11.6, 40.6) 31.4 (17.1, 49.7)
 IL-18 (pg/mL) 11.6 (4.1, 42.3) 10.6 (3.9, 35.0) 35.3 (10.6, 235.2)
 NGAL (ng/mL) 10.2 (4.1, 51.5) 9.5 (3.9, 42.1) 26.0 (6.8, 178.5)
 Albumin (mg/L) 14.6 (6.9, 39.5) 13.6 (6.6, 36.1) 25.1 (12.6, 68.0)
 KIM-1 (ng/mL) 0.44 (0.17, 0.99) 0.40 (0.16, 0.90) 0.96 (0.47, 1.78)
 L-FABP (ng/mL) 19.1 (4.3, 105.2) 17.6 (4.0, 98.4) 52.0 (7.4, 397.9)
 Cystatin C (mg/L) 0.17 (0.05, 0.26) 0.16 (0.05, 0.26) 0.21 (0.10, 0.30)
Postoperative plasma markers, median (IQR)
 BNP (pg/mL) 53.4 (25.9, 130.1) 50.6 (24.8, 117.6) 111.7 (49.2, 248.7)
 NGAL (ng/mL) 185.6 (118.6, 268.2) 178.3 (114.8, 258.9) 244.4 (180.9, 338.8)
 IL-10 (pg/mL) 44.7 (13.6, 109.9) 42.9 (13.1, 109.5) 56.5 (25.5, 110.9)
 IL-6 (pg/mL) 165.5 (91.4, 295.6) 155.9 (87.8, 276.5) 338.3 (161.0, 576.3)
 NT-proBNP (pmol/L) 57.1 (22.5, 142.2) 48.3 (21.5, 123.8) 138.0 (66.9, 291.6)
 TNI (μg/L) 1.5 (0.8, 3.2) 1.5 (0.8, 2.9) 2.9 (1.5, 6.9)
 TNTHS (ng/L) 406.3 (249.4, 757.0) 392.9 (243.6, 695.6) 744.2 (356.4, 1602.5)
 CKMB (μg/L) 21.8 (14.1, 37.3) 21.5 (13.7, 34.5) 31.6 (18.6, 60.8)
 h-FABP (μg/L) 31.2 (21.1, 49.4) 30.0 (20.7, 46.1) 55.4 (34.7, 141.0)
 MCP-1 (pg/mL) 449.8 (306.9, 734.6) 434.5 (302.2, 713.8) 518.8 (384.7, 883.0)
 EGF (pg/mL) 0.90 (0.90, 3.55) 0.90 (0.90, 3.69) 0.90 (0.90, 0.90)
 VEGF (pg/mL) 4.5 (4.5, 4.5) 4.5 (4.5, 4.5) 4.5 (4.5, 4.5)
  1. Abbreviations: AKI acute kidney injury, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, IL-18 interleukin-18, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, KIM-1 kidney injury molecule-1, L-FABP liver fatty acid-binding protein, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, IL-10 interleukin-10, IL-6 interleukin-6, NT-proBNP N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, TNI troponin I, TNTHS high-sensitivity troponin T, CKMB creatine kinase-MB, h-FABP heart-type fatty acid binding protein, MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, EGF epidermal growth factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor