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Table 2 Clinical studies investigating the relation between serum albumin and cardiovascular disease

From: Critical appraisal of the role of serum albumin in cardiovascular disease

Study Year Number Characteristics of patients Albumin cut-off value Outcomes
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
 Hartopo et al. [42] 2010 82 ACS < 3.5 g/dL ↑In-hospital adverse eventa
 Bhamidipati et al. [43] 2011 2794 CAD undergoing CABG < 3 g/dL ↑Mortality and post-operative complications
 Oduncu et al. [39] 2013 1706 STEMI undergoing primary PCI < 3.5 g/dlL ↑3.5-year all mortality and advanced HF
 Sujino et al. [40] 2015 62 Age 85 years, STEMI Continuous variable ↑In-hospital mortality
 Murat et al. [46] 2015 890 ACS undergoing PCI Continuous variable ↑Contrast induced acute kidney injury and in-hospital mortality
 Kurtul et al. [47] 2015 536 STEMI undergoing PCI < 3.75 g/dL ↑Risk of no-reflow after PCI
 Plakht et al. [41] 2016 8750 AMI categorize albumin level by 3.4, 3.7, 3.9, 4.1 g/dL ↑10-year all mortality
 Kurtul et al. [45] 2016 1303 ACS undergoing coronary angiography < 3.3 g/dL ↑SYNTAX score and in-hospital mortality
 Celik et al. [48] 2016 341 PCI with a BMS < 3.81 g/dL ↑Risk of in-stent restenosis after PCI
 Wada et al. [44] 2017 2860 CAD undergoing PCI 3.8 g/dL; 4.1 g/dL ↑MACE and 10-year all mortalityb
 Chien et al. [49] 2017 734 Stable CAD < 3.5 g/dL ↑1.5-year MACE and mortalityc
Ischemic stroke
 Gillum et al. [50] 1994 4897 White men aged 65–74 years; Blacks aged 45–74 years < 4.2 vs > 4.4 g/dL ↑14-year stroke incidence and stroke mortality
 Dziedzic et al. [53] 2004 759 Acute ischemic stroke < 4.9 g/dL Poor 3-month neurologic outcomed
 Hostmark et al. [52] 2006 5071 30–75 years < 4.7 g/dL ↑(self-reported) Stroke incidence
 Xu et al. [51] 2014 2986 >40 years old < 4.2 vs > 4.6 g/dL ↑12-year stroke incidence
Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)
 O’Hare et al. [56] 2002 14,427 Hemodialysis patients Continuous variable ↑PAD incidence
 Beddhu et al. [57] 2002 1411 Hemodialysis patients < 3.6 g/dL ↑PAD incidence
 Schillinger et al. [60] 2004 702 PAD patients with less than 2 traditional risk factors < 3.85 g/dL ↑1-year MACEf
 Ishii et al. [59] 2013 450 Hemodialysis patients undergoing endovascular therapy < 3.6 g/dL ↑3-year major adverse limb evente
 Tsai et al. [58] 2015 444 Hemodialysis patients Continuous variable ↑4-year all or CV mortality
Heart failure (HF)
 Horwich et al. [61] 2008 1726 Systolic HF ≤ 3.4 g/dl ↑1- and 5- year all mortality
↑Urgent heart transplant
 Kinugasa et al. [63] 2009 349 Age 65, Acute HF < 3.2 g/dL ↑In-hospital mortality
 Uthamalingam et al. [64] 2010 438 Acute, systolic HF < 3.4 g/dL ↑1-year cardiac mortality
 Gopal et al. [67] 2010 2907 Aged 70–79 years without HF < 4.0 g/dl ↑6-year HF risk but the risk declined annually
 Filippatos et al. [68] 2011 5450 Aged ≥65 years, without HF ≤ 3.5 mg/dL ↑10-year HF incidence
 Liu et al. [62] 2012 576 Acute HF, preserved EF ≤ 3.4 g/dl ↑1-year all mortality
 Polat et al. [65] 2014 135 Acute, systolic HF < 3.1 g/dL ↑1-year mortality
 Bonilla-Palomas et al. [66] 2014 362 Acute HF ≤ 3.4 g/dL ↑In-hospital and 1-year all mortality
  1. Abbreviation: STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, HF heart failure, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, AMI acute myocardial infarction, ACS acute coronary syndrome, CAD coronary artery disease, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, CV cardiovascular, MACE major adverse cardiac event, BMS bare-metal stent, PAD peripheral arterial disease, EF left ventricular ejection fraction
  2. Continuous variable is addressed if studies analyzed the influence of serum albumin with a manner of continuous variable instead of a definite cut-off value
  3. aIn-hospital adverse events include mortality, acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and reinfarction
  4. bMACE include nonfatal myocardial infarction and mortality
  5. cMACE include nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke and cardiovascular mortality
  6. dPoor neurologic outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale >3 or mortality
  7. eMajor adverse limb event was defined as a composite of target lesion revascularization, amputation and all-cause mortality
  8. fMACE include a composite of nonfatal MI, coronary revascularization, and all-cause mortality