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Table 1 Summary of detection techniques for bone biomarkers

From: Bone biomarker for the clinical assessment of osteoporosis: recent developments and future perspectives

Biomarker Method Concentration Reference
Total ALP standard Technicon Auto-analyzer 113 U/L [12]
Total ALP Roche COBAS Integra 800 >129 U/L [13]
Total ALP Olympus AU 5200 analyzer 64.8–79.7 U/L [14]
BALP enzyme immunoassay 24.9–19.7 U/L [24]
BALP enzyme immunoassay 66.4 ± 8.7 U/L [25]
OC antibody immunoassay 4.1 ± 0.5 ng/mL [27]
OC ELISA 16.16 ± 4.5 ng/mL [28]
P1NP Elecsys 2010 automated analyzer 54.1 μg/L [29]
P1CP radioimmunoassay 97–116 ng/mL [32]
HYP Bergman and Loxley method 34.7 mg/g creatinine [35]
GHYL HPLC 1.35 ± 0.82 mmol/mol [39]
GHYL HPLC 1.93–6.07 μmol/L [40]
DPD HPLC 11.3–22.3 nmol/L [40]
DPD chemiluminescence immunoassay 4.7 nmol/L [42]
DPD enzyme immunoassay 4.4 nmol/L [42]
PYD HPLC 28.8 μmol/mol creatinine [45]
BSP radioimmunoassay 12.1 ± 5.0 μg/L [48]
BSP radioimmunoassay 8.0 μg/L [49]
OP ELISA 20.75 ± 5.36 ng/mL [51]
TRAP 5b enzyme immunoassay 4.0 U/L [54]
TRAP 5b enzyme immunoassay 3.40 ± 0.87 U/L [55]
CTX-1 ELISA 0.17–0.30 ng/ml [56]
NTX-1 ELISA 37 ± 15 nmol BCE/mmol Cr [57]
CTSK ELISA 10.17 pmol/L [59]
RANKL ELISA 0.08 pmol/L [61]
OPG ELISA 1.8 pmol/L [61]
DDK-1 ELISA 34.3 pmol/L [65]
Sclerostin ELISA 29.5 pmol/L [65]