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Fig. 1 | Biomarker Research

Fig. 1

From: Bone biomarker for the clinical assessment of osteoporosis: recent developments and future perspectives

Fig. 1

Biochemical biomarkers of bone turnover. Blue boxes/arrows represent bone formation markers: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP); osteocalcin (OC); propeptides of type I procollagen (P1NP and P1CP). Orange boxes/arrows represent bone resorption markers: pyridinoline (PYD); deoxypyridoline (DPD); carboxy-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1); amino-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX-1); hydroxyproline (HYP); hydroxylysine (HYL); bone sialoprotein (BSP); osteopontin (OP); tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b); cathepsin K (CTSK). Green boxes represent regulators of bone turnover: receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), dickkopf-1 (DDK-1) and sclerostin. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [9]. Copyright @ 2015, Nature Publishing Group

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