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Table 2 Surface modification of dental implants with other growth factors

From: Dental implant bioactive surface modifications and their effects on osseointegration: a review

Author Animal – bone site Mode of surface modification Length of study Findings
Anitua [32] Goat – tibia and radius 1. Ti (control)
2. Ti + PRGF
8 weeks % of BIC
- Ti + PRGF: 51%
- Ti: 22%
Lan et al. [33] Rabbit - femur 1. Group 1: rhBMP-2 (1.0 mg) + rhbFGF (200 μg)
2. Group 2: rhBMP-2 (1.0 mg) + rhIGF-1 (250 μg)
3. Group 3: rhBMP-2 (1.0 mg)
4. Group 4: no growth factor (control)
4 and 8 weeks % of new bone formation
- Group 1: 7.0% at 4 weeks, 10.0% at 8 weeks
- Group 2: 7.6% at 4 weeks, 9.9% at 8 weeks
- Group 3: 6.2% at 4 weeks, 8.0% at 8 weeks
- Group 4: 5.0% at 4 weeks, 6.0% at 8 weeks
Park et al. [34] Rabbit - tibia 1. Group 1: anodized under constant 300 voltage
2. Group 2: anodized under constant 300 voltage + FGF-FN fusion protein (65 μg/mL)
12 weeks Mean removal torque value
- Group 1: 37.6 Ncm
- Group 2: 44.8 Ncm
% of BIC
- Group 1: 76.4%
- Group 2: 88.0%
Nikolidakis et al. [35] Goat – femoral condyle 1. Control: Ti
2. Ti-TGF(0.5): Ti + 0.5 μg TGF-β1
3. Ti-TGF(1.0): Ti + 1.0 μg TGF-β1
6 weeks % of BIC
- Ti: 65%
- Ti-TGF(0.5): 48%
- Ti-TGF(1.0): 45%
Schouten et al. [36] Goat – Femoral condyle 1. Screw type implant: St
2. St + CaP
3. St + CaP + TGF-β1 (1.0 μg)
4. Push-in type implant: Pi
5. Pi + CaP
6. Pi + CaP + TGF-β1 (1.0 μg)
12 weeks % of BIC
- St: 44%
- St + CaP: 58%
- St + CaP + TGF-β1: 64%
- Pi : 23%
- Pi + CaP: 46%
- Pi + CaP + TGF-β1: 52%
Lee et al. [37] Rabbit – tibia 1. Group 1: anodized (under 300 voltage)
2. Group 2: anodized + 0.02 ml PLGA
3. Group 3: anodized + 0.02 ml PLGA/bFGF (10 ng bFGF)
4. Group 4: anodized + 0.2 ml PLGA/bFGF (100 ng bFGF)
12 weeks % of BIC
- Groups 1: 31.4%
- Group 2: 33.6%
- Group 3: around 37%
- Group 4: 44.7%
Ramazanoglu et al. [38] Pig – frontal skull 1. AE (control)
2. CaP coated
3. CaP + rhBMP-2 inc
4. CaP + rhVEGFI65 inc
5. CaP + rhBMP-2 inc + rhVEGFI65 inc
1, 2, and 4 weeks % of BIC for ROI 1 + 4
- AE: 3.4% at 1 week; 11.5% at 2 weeks; 16.1% at 4 weeks
- CaP: 5.2% at 1 week; 19.2% at 2 weeks; 23.5% at 4 weeks
- CaP + BMP-2: 1.8% at 1 week; 15.5% at 2 weeks; 21.6% at 4 weeks
- CaP + VEGF: 3.1% at 1 week; 15.2% at 2 weeks; 22.6% at 4 weeks
- CaP + BMP-2 + VEGF: 3.3% at 1 week; 22.1% at 2 weeks; 23.2% at 4 weeks
% of BIC for ROI 2 + 3
- AE: 10.6% at 1 week; 14.6% at 2 weeks; 20.1% at 4 weeks
- CaP: 15.4% at 1 week; 22.6% at 2 weeks; 24.9% at 4 weeks
- CaP + BMP-2: 8.2% at 1 week; 27.3% at 2 weeks; 23.6% at 4 weeks
- CaP + VEGF: 8.5% at 1 week; 23% at 2 weeks; 24.4% at 4 weeks
- CaP + BMP-2 + VEGF: 9.6% at 1 week; 31.7% at 2 weeks; 31.8% at 4 weeks
Schliephake et al. [39] Rat - tibia 1. SAE (control)
2. SAE + OAS
3. SAE + OAS + rhVEGF-conjugated to complementary oligonucleotide strands
1, 4, and 13 weeks % of BIC for 1 and 4 weeks
- SAE: 14.5% at 1 week; 40.6% at 4 weeks
- SAE + OAS: 14.1% at 1 week; 40.2% at 4 weeks
- SAE + OAS + VEGF: 15.1% at 1 week; 60.1% at 4 weeks
% of BIC for 13 weeks
All groups were between 75% to 80% with no significantly differences between groups
  1. Ti titanium implant surface; BIC bone to implant contact; PRGF human plasma-rich growth factor; hrBMP-2 recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2; rhbFGF recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor; rhIGF-1 recombinant human insulin-like growth factor; FGF-FN fibroblast growth factor-fibronectin; TGF-β1 transforming growth factor β1; St screw type implant; Pi push-in type implant; CaP calcium phosphate coating; PLGA poly(lactide-co-glycolide); bFGF basic fibroblast growth factor; AE acid-etched; VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor; CaP calcium phosphate; SAE sandblasted and acid-etched; OAS DNA oligonucleotide anchor strands