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Table 2 Summary of the human studies

From: Nephrin – a biomarker of early glomerular injury

Authors Journal (Year)/PMID Study sample size Clinical condition Method of urine Results
     Nephrin assay  
Patari et al. Diabetes (2003)/14633858 Control = 29 Diabetic Nephropathy Electrophoresis (Western blot) 1. Nephrinuria was present in 30% of normoalbuminuric, 17% of microalbuminuric, 28% of macroalbuminuric,
Study = 120 2. None of the control subjects was nephrinuric.
Wang et al. Nephron Clin Pract. (2007)/17596726 Control = 9 Diabetic nephropathy mRNA RT-PCR 1. Nephrinuria higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to control.
Study = 21 2. Nephrinuria correlated with proteinuria
Ng et al. Nephrol. Dial.Transplant (2011)/21196468 Study = 381 Diabetic nephropathy Electrophoresis (Western blot) 1. Each Nephrin fragment was associated with a decline in eGFR
2. Nephrinuria was strongly associated with the urine albumin/creatinine ratio
3. Nephrinuria was significantly associated with lower eGFR even among normoalbuminuric patients (ACR ≤30 mg/g)
Jim et al. PLoS ONE (2012)/22615747 Control = 12 Diabetic nephropathy ELISA (Exocell, Philadelphia, PA) 1. Nephrinuria preceded microalbumniuria
Study = 15 2. Nephrinuria detected in all diabetic patients with micro and macroalbuminuria
3. Nephrinuria also correlated significantly with albuminuria and systolic blood pressure
4. Correlated negatively with serum albumin and eGFR
do Nascimento et al. BMC Nephrol.(2013)/24103534 Control = 15 Diabetic Nephropathy mRNA RT-PCR 1. Normoalbuniuric diabetics showed increased urinary nephrin compared to control group
Study = 67 2. Nephrinuria correlated with diabetic nephropathy stages
Petrica et al. *Nephrology Dialy.Transpl (2014)/NA Control = 11 Diabetic nephropathy NA 1. Urine albumin creatinine ratio correlates with nephrinuria
Study = 70 2. Increased levels of urinary nephrin in normoalbuminuric and microalbuniuruc patients
Wang et al. J Rheumatol (2007)/17985404 Control = 17 Systemic Lupus Errythematosus (SLE) mRNA RT-PCR 1. Nephrinuria higher in patients SLE nephritis
Study = 32 2. Nephrinuria correlated with proteinuria
3. Nephrinuria level correlated with severity of SLE disease activity
Tchebotareva et al. *Nephrology Dialy.Transpl (2012)/NA Study = 74 Glomerulonephritis ELISA 1. Nephrinuria correlated with proteinuria and severity of GN
2. Immunosuppressive therapy lowers nephrinuria levels
Proletov et al. *Nephrology Dialy.Transpl (2014)/NA Study = 71 Glomerulonephritis ELISA 1. Nephrinuria correlated with daily proteinuria
2. Nephrinuria and proteinuria lowest excretion in patients treated with Cyclosporine.
Mehta et al. *AJKD (2012)/NA Control = 14 Preeclampsia ELISA (Exocell, Philadelphia, PA) 1. Urine nephrin to creatinine ratio (UNCR) are predictive of preeclampsia in second trimester of pregnancy
Study = 67
Wang et al. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol (2012)/22301621 Control = 8 Preeclampsia ELISA (Exocell, Philadelphia, PA) 1. Urinary Nephrin and podocalyxin concentrations were significantly increased and highly correlated with each other in preeclampsia
Study = 26 2. Nephrin and podocalyxin were also correlated with urine protein concentrations in preeclampsia
3. Nephrin undetectable in normal pregnancy
Son et al. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. (2013)/23116596 Control = 30 Preeclampsia ELISA (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) 1. Nephrin was significantly higher in women with severe pre-eclampsia
Study = 43 2. Positive correlation between urinary nephrin and urine protein level
3. Urine nephrin concentrations correlated with diastolic blood pressure and serum creatinine levels in the severe pre-eclamptic group
Jim et al. PLoS ONE (2014)/25010746 Control = 13 Preeclampsia ELISA (Exocell, Philadelphia, PA) 1. Alb/Cr ratio had a high specificity (96%). All three biomarkers exhibited poor positive predictive values (14–62%) but acceptable negative predictive values (89–91%).
   Study = 78    
  1. mRNA RT-PCR: Messenger Ribonucleic acid Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction; ACR = Albumin creatinine ratio; *- Conference abstract.