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Table 1 Summary of the animal studies that have investigated the relationship between nephrinuria and glomerular injury

From: Nephrin – a biomarker of early glomerular injury

Authors Journal (Year)/PMID Study subjects (sample size N) Disease model Method of urine Results
     Nephrin assay  
Luimula et al. Pediatric Research (2000)/11102543 Sprague–Dawley rats Puromycin aminoglycoside (PAN) induced nephrosis (Minimal change disease) Effacement and fusion of Electrophoresis 1. Animals treated with puromycin developed albuminuria starting at day 3, and reached maximum at day 6
Control = 6 Study = 12 2. Nephrin can be detected among urinary proteins when the level of proteinuria exceeds 25 mg/mL
Nakatsue et al. Kidney Int. (2005)/15882266 Wistar rats Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (Heymann nephritis) Electrophoresis (Western blot) 1. Nephrin is excreted into urine in the early stages of nephritis
Control = 5 Study = 16
Sprague–Dawley rats Control = 3 Study = 3
Aaltonen et al. Lab. Invest (2001)/11555666 Wistar rats Type 1 (Insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and Diabetic nephropathy Electrophoresis 1. Free nephrin was found in the urine of STZ-induced rats at 4 weeks and was at the maximum at 6 weeks
Control = 3 Study = 14
Non Obese diabetic mice 2. Nephrin is connected to the early changes of diabetic nephropathy
Control = 3 Study = 9
Alter et al. Clin.Lab (2012)/22997966 Wistar rats Streptozotocin (STZ) induced Diabetes Mellitus and diabetic nephropathy ELISA (USCN Life Sci. Inc. Burlington, NC, USA) 1. Nephrinuria detected prior to albuminuria and renal impairment.
Control = 9 Study = 14 2. This biomarker offer an advantage to urinary albumin with respect to early detection
Chang et al. Plos One (2012)/22496773 Akita mice Type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy ELISA (Exocell, Philadelphia, PA) 1. Urinary nephrin excretion is associated with kidney injury and is detectable early in the disease process.
Control = 8 Study = 8 2. Onset of hyperglycemia associated with nephrinuria
3. Nephrinuria rate has a positive correlation with albuminuria
O’Brien et al. J of Diabetic Research (2013)/Not available Mice Obesity, Type 2 diabetes ELISA (Exocell, Philadelphia, PA) 1. Nephrinuria correlates with albuminuria
   Control = 12 Study = 12