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Table 1 Accuracy of diagnostic panels for NASH

From: Noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis in NAFLD

Reference Biomarkers N AUROC Cutoff value Se (%) Sp (%) PPV (%) NPV (%)
Dixon [48] HAIR score 105 0.90 score>2 80 89 n/a n/a
  (hypertension, ALT>40 U/L, IR index>5)        
Palekar [49] age≥50 years, female gender, AST≥45 U/L, 80 0.76 score≥3 73.7 65.7 68.2 71.4
  BMI≥30 kg/m2, AAR ratio≥0.8, HA≥55 mcg/L        
Poynard [50] NashTest 257 0.78 n/a 33 94 66 81
  (age, sex, height, weight, triglyceride, GGT,        
  cholesterol, alpha2macroglobulin, AST, ALT,        
  apolipoprotein A1, haptoglobin, total bilirubin)        
Gholam [51] AST, presence of diabetes 97 0.82 8.22 76 66 n/a n/a
Campos [52] NASH Clinical Scoring System for Morbid 186 0.80 0-2    7 93
  obesity (hypertension, type 2 diabetes,    3-4    27 73
  AST≥27 U/L, ALT ≥27 U/L, sleep apnea,    5    59 41
  non-black race)    6-7    93 7
Ulitsky [53] diabetes, ALT >40 U/L, triglyceride >150 253 0.76 0-1    10.6 89.4
  mg/dL, sleep apnea    2-3    24.7 75.3
     4    60 40
     5    75 25
Shimada [54] adiponectin≤4 mcg/mL, HOMA-IR≥3, 85 n/a all 3 +ive 94 74 94 74
  type IV collagen 7S≥5 ng/mL        
Tarek [56] CK18 fragments, sFas 95 0.93 −0.5509 88 89 n/a n/a
Younossi [57] NASH Diagnostics 101 0.908 0.2772 94.5 70.2 60 97.1
  (cleaved and intact CK18 levels,        
  serum adiponectin and resistin levels)        
Sookoain [58] BMI, waist circumference, ALT, AST, AP, 101 0.795 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
  GGT, HOMA, CRP, sICAM-1        
Sumida [59] NAFIC score 177 0.851 1 94 48 31 86
  [serum ferritin (≥200 ng/mL for female,    2 66 91 90 67
  ≥300 ng/mL for male), fasting insulin ≥10 442¥ 0.782¥ 1 88 43 66 75
  μU/mL, type IV collagen ≥5 ng/mL]    2 60 87 85 64
Younossi [60] NAFLD Diagnostic Panel 79 0.81 0.221 91.2 47.4 60.8 85.7
  (diabetes, gender, BMI, triglycerides,    0.3641 79.4 73.7 73 80
  apoptotic and necrotic CK18 fragments)    0.6183 44.1 92.1 83.3 64.8
  1. AUROC, area under receiver operator characteristic curve; Se, sensitivity; Sp, specificity; PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; IR, insulin resistance; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; AAR, AST/ALT ratio; HA, hyaluronic acid; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; AP, alkaline phosphatase; CRP, C-reactive protein; n/a, not available.
  2. Estimation group; ¥Validation group.